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Et faciet: quoniam fordent tibi munera noftra. and fbe sbal, fince you despise Huc ades, O formose puer. Tibi lilia plenis 45 Come bieber, O lovely bog. Ecce ferunt Nymphae calathis : tibi candida Nais See the nympbs are gathering
wbole baskets full of lilies for you : a fair Naied
Abducere orat.] *** Orat 46. Calathis.] Servius observes, " ut abducat; thus in the tenth that calatbus is a Greek word, for “ Aeneid Donat habere for Donat ut which the Romans used quafillum ; ;habeat," SERVIUS.
- thus Cicero, At vero inter quafilla 44. Sordent tibi munera noftra.] appendebatur aurum. La Cerda Thus Horace;
fays, that the calathus seems to have
been a basket used by the Ancients " Cunctane prae campo et, Tibe- for flowers, as may appear from fe“ ring Alumine fordent?”
veral passages besides this now be
Thus Ovid; 45. Huc ades, &c.] The Chep- fore us. herd being in doubt, whether these presents of the pipe and kids are
Sparfosque fine ordine flores fufficient to engage Alexis, renews
« Secernunt calathis;" his invitation by offering him a prefent of flowers, to be gathered by
and Sidonius; the hand of a fair nymph, to which he adds some fruits, which he pro
« Cytisos, crocos, amellos, poses to gather himself, and inter
« Cafias, ligustra, calthas mix with leaves of the finest odour.
Calathi ferant capaces :" Huc ades.]
" I have observed " this form of words to be used and Prudentius; * both by the Greeks and Latins, " in appellations full of love. Thus
“Floribus ut cumalet calathis: Sappho to Venus, αλλα τη
*es Rofarum et liliorum
and Jerom, " led huc tu-ades; and again,
« calathus." He observes also, that mod sy súv, nunc mibi ades. The- it ferved not only for flowers, but for ocritus, in his fifth Idyllium, in all other country things, as appears * culcates it twice, dana gee tool from the following patsages of Ovid; ***** put, sed min ades, huc ades. “ Virgil, in this place, Huc ades, “ Afferat in calatha rustica dona "O formofe puer; and again, Huc puer: " ades, infani feriant fine. littora
venti, and in the ninth Eclogue, and Columella ; « Huckades o Galatea." LA CERDA
56. Pomisque Damaci Lilia.] See the note on ver, 139. 16. Stipantur calathi." of the fourth Georgick,
plucks wall-flowers for you, and Pallentes violas et fumma papavera carpens tufo. ebe tops of poppies,
and Nemefianus ;
“ Pliny, who speaking of the lily,
"uses the following words.; Folus Decerpunt vitibus ulmos, “ foris ftriatis, et ab anguftiis in las Et portant catathis."
« titudinem paulatim fe laxantibus
"effigie calathi.” Hence he conHence he infers that the Poet did cludes, that Virgil's meaning pernot transfer the word from works haps may be, that the nymphs bring baskets, as fome imagine, because lilies, not in bud, but full blown, agriculture is the most ancient of all and double, dilata in orbem, et eft arts: whence it seems more pro- formata in calathos jam plenos prae fobable, that the word was transferred tiorum multitudine, et exuberantia. We from agriculture to work-baskets. might therefore, according to this This learned Critick proceeds to criticism - render
. lilia plenis calathis, give a new fignification to calathus. not lilies in full baskets, but "lilies with “ It means not only a basket, says full cups or bells. This sense would 6 he, but all flowers, which when be very good; if we had any reason “ they blow, expand into an orb. to believe, that double lilies were " The Latin Dictionaries indeed known
known or esteemed among the An“ are entirely silent about it, but cients. " There is indeed a double " we have a proof from Ausonius white lily, the Lilium album, in
and S. Jerom. The former, in odorum, flore pleno H. R. Par. But " that epigram, which begins with as Mr Miller observes, « There is " Ver erat, et blando, &c. says “ no beauty in it, for the flowers
open, and have no fcent,
« fo that it scarcely deserves a place * Nec mora, ridentis calathi pate+ in å good' garden.” Therefore “ fecit honorem,
unless it could be made appear, that 6. Prodens inclufi semina densa thefe double filies are frequent in croci ;”
Italy, that they commonly open
their flowers there, and afford fome “ the latter, in his epistle to Pam- smell, we ought to adhere to the “ machius Quis parturientem rot 'common interpretation Virgil has
fam, et papillatum corymbum, an used 'the word calathis only in three :“ tequam in calathum fundatur or other places. In the fifth Eclogue, 6 bis, et tota rubentium foliorum it evidently fignihes a sort of cup or
pandatur ambitio, immature de- drinking vessel
mesjum, aequis oculis marcessere “ videat? This fignification is Vina novum fundam calathis Ar“ drawn from the fimilitude of a 66 visia nectar. " basket in Yuch flowers, when s blown, which is confirmed by Ir the third Georgick it serves to
66 thus ;
Narciffum et florem jungit bone olentis anethi, 1. adding daffodils, and the flower
of sweet smelling dillo NOTES. 2
express. a basket, through which the Ray affirms, on his own experience, whey, is ftrained from the curd ; that both the purple and white vio- .
léts come from the seeds of the fames - Quod jam tenebris et fole plant. There is also a sort of vioa, cadente
let, with a pale yellow flower, in, Sub lucem exportans calathis adit Nape resembling that species, which 4 oppida paftor."
we commonly call pansy or heart's=;
ease. It is the Viola bicolor arvenfis, See the note on ver. 402. In the C, B. It is a common weed amongst seventh Aeneid it is used for a work- the corn; and I have formerly,
thought it to be the same that Vir
gil here calls pallentes violas. But Non illa colo, calathisve on a more mature consideration of Minervae
what the ancient writers have deliver" Foemines aflueta manus.”. ed, I rather believe the plant here.
intended to be the stock gilliflower It is probable, that these several or wall flower, which all Botanists, utenlils were of the same shape, nar with one confent allow to be what rówer at the bottom, and broader the Ancients called Leucoium, which at the top, which Pliny expreffes is evidently derived from neuxóv kov, by ab anguftiis, in latitudinem paulla- a white violet. Theophraftus fays tim fel laxantibus. The flowers of the Leucoium is one of the earliest this form are called by us bell- Aowers, appearing even in the winflowers .
ter, if the weather is, mild; but if Tibi candida Naïs.] Turnebus it is cold, something later, in the obferves that a Naiad is mentioned spring: Tūn de dudwy ar pūrov expat here with great propriety ; because those nymphs were fond of boys,
νεται το Λευκόίον, όπου μέν ο αής and ran away with Hylas. Colu” yaranutepos, iutus To Resiplovos, mela) has : imitated this pafage, in όπου δε σκληρότερος, ύστερον, ενιαχού fome verses quoted already, in the Toũ úpos. Pliny, who has translated note on Alba liguftra cadunt. this very passage, renders euxciov
47 Pallen:es violas.] That vio- viola alba; “ Florum prima ver lets are usually called black by the “ nunciantium viola alba. TepiPoets, and that our common violets dioribus 'vero locis etiam hyeme are of a very dark colour, is well “ emicat.” Some, observing that known. It is therefore to be con- these authors speak of the Leucoium fidered; what the Poet means in this or Viola alba, as appearing first place by pale vielets. This is cer the spring, will have it to be the tain, that the common violet is know-dropa or Leucorum bulbofum, as often seen with white flowers; and it is commonly called. We might
Tben interwaving them witb Tum, calia atque aliis-intexens suavibus herbis, casia, ond suber freret berbs, '.
NO TE 3.
as well take it to be the Primula by Diofcorides are all to be met with veris, or primrose, the very name in the stock gilliflower, except blue, of which declares it to be one of whence n xuavaūv is supposed by fethe earlieft flowers. But the snow- veral Criticks to have flipt into the drop, cannot be the plant in quef- text by fome mistake." Marcellus tion, because Theophraftus, in ano- affirms that blue is omitted in a very ther place, reckons it among those old Latin version of Diofcorides
, plants, which have a leafy stalk; which he had seen. This suspicion Επικουλόφυλλα δε πικρές ανθέμιον is confirmed alfo by Oribatius and To Quarūdes, awtos, Aeuxőiov. Now Serapio, who do not 'mention blue, the snow-drop has no leaves upon though they copy all the other words the stalk; and therefore cannot be of Dioscorides exactly. Hippocrates, the Leucoium of Theophrastus. Di- in his book wapi yuvaizains Dúolos, oscorides thought the Lencoium too speaks of the black Leucrium, A£vwell known to need any defcription. κόλου ρίζαν του μέλανος εν δινω διείς του This unhappy negligence is so common among the Ancients, that the be understood of that sort with pur- nu
αυτον τρόπου χρήσθω, which muft plants which they were best ac- quainted with are frequently least ple flowers. That fort, which bears known by the Moderns. He only what we call the wall-flower, which
yellow flowers, can be no other than says there is a difference in the colour of the flowers, which are either
has a sweet smell, and blows early in white, or yellow, or blue or purple; what Theophrastus has faid of the
the spring, and therefore agrees with Aeixói ov zvápspubv toliu. "E57. dè &u- Leucoium. It is indeed a ftockgilliflower rūs de popa iv tõo dudal i gão devo with yellow flowers, though ii hapa si sáv écleve piñasvov, xuavoūv, pens to have obtained a name pecuWoppupov fupíoxetas. It may be liar to itself. It may be a matter of thought Atrange, that a plant, which some difficulty, to imagine how the derives it's name from whiteness Ancients came to give almost there thould be faid to have yellow, blue, fame name to two sorts of plants, fa or purple fowers : but it is the gene- different as yiolets and stock gilliral opinion of the modern Bota- Aowers. Perhaps the firfi fort taken nifts, that it was called white, not notice of by them might be that from the colour of it's flower, but with the purple flowers, which befrom the hoarinefs of his leaves. ing something like a violet, and Caspar Bauhimus, not to quote any having hoary leaves, might induce more of them, fays expressly, them to call it Aevxóiov, or white vie" Leucoium, id eft, Viola alba, po- let. Or perhaps the smell alone, 56. tius foliorum quam forum ram which is the most remarkable pro« tione." The colours mentioned perty commonly observed in a violet,
Mollialutepla pingit vaccinia caltha. . Šo Be fets off the.Soff kyacintb wicht
NOTES. might be the occasion of their be- writes it Bylofre, transposing, the ! ftowing on it a similar name. The and the r of Giroflier ; giving the same general name to se. veral species of plants, which have Lhere was eke weryng mang A a similar structure of flower and
[pice, fruit, is an exactness known only as Clowe Oplofre, and liquozice. to the modern Botanists, and hardly thought of till the latter end of the And our old Turner, has Gelover fixteenth century:
Hence it has and Gelyfloure. Here we may obbeen very usual to call plants of a serve the error of those, who not like structure by different names, knowing the derivation of the word and those of different structure by Gilliflower, have affected to call the same name. Numberless in- these plants July-Flowers. The stančes of this might be mentioned, fpecies of Leucoium having also a fine as Lily of the valley, which hardly smell, obtained thereby the name bears any other resemblance of of gilliflowers also. For the same lily than it's whiteness; and Ground reason, the French call these last not Ivy, which seems to resemble ivy in only Giroflier, but Violjer also, agreenothing else, but it's creeping. But able to the idea of the Ancients: we need go no farther than the plant Thus much I thought necessary to under consideration. The word say, in justification of my translatGilliflower has been applied to plants ing pallentes violas Wall-flowers, 1 most widely different from each But I must still beg leave to add a * other ; the Stock-Gillifower which word 'or two concerning the epithet comprehends the wall-flower; and pallentes. We have seen already, the Clove-Gilliflower, which com that the Romans called ftock-gillir prehends the several sorts of carna flowers Violae albae. It is therefore tions and pinks. How these fo dif- plain that they comprehended both a ferent plants came to have the fame them and common violets under the > name bestowed on them, is not eafy general name of Viola, It is proto imagine, unless it was from the bable also, that when they intended fineness of their smell. The clove- to express any one particular fort, gilliflower has the smell of that fort they added fome epithet to, distinof spice, which is called clove, and guish it. Thus our Poet, intending in Latin Caryophyllum. From Ca- here to express the yellow ftockryophyllum the French derive their gillifower, which we vulgarly disGirofle, which means the same spice. tinguish under the name of wallHence they call the flower, which flower, added the epithet pallentes, has that smell, Giroflier, which we or yellow. Paleness is that appearhave corrupted to Gilliflower. Chau- ance, of the human countenance, cer, in his Remaunt of the Role, which happens, when the blood