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Spread tbe ground wieb leaver, Spargite humum foliis, inducite fontibus umbras, 40 ye Shepherds, and form a made Paftores: mandat fieri sibi talia Daphnis. over tbe, fountains : Daphnis commands such things to be done for bim.


“ narum, maximeque rubi, et pa- ancient manuscripts. But he says it liuri, et ejus, quam Graeciis aras in the Roman manuscript, “ xuvórbatov, nos sentem canis ap- instead of umbras; and frondibus in is pellamus. If we confider these fome copies, instead of fontibus

. quotations well, we can hardly Catrou reads frondibus aras. “Bedoubt, that the Paliurus of the An « fides,' says he, that the words, cients is the Rhamnus falio fubrotundo;

« which I have preferred, are to fructu compreso C. B. which is cul 66 be found in the ancient manutivated in our gardens under the “ scripts, they form a more true name of Christ's thorn; and is fup " image with respect to a dead perposed to be the thorn, of which the « son. We do not read any where crown was made, that was put upon

66 that arbours were made over our Saviour's head. This Ihrub “ fountains, to honour funerals; grows abundantly in Italy in uncul " and we often read that altars and tivated places, and is very common

" tombs were covered with branches. in the hedges, for the strength of it's

« Thus at the death of Polydore, thorns makes a very good fence. It

" the altars were covered with cyusually bears about three feeds, which press, and the branches were inare inclosed in as many cells, and terwoven with blue ribbands ; covered with a fungous husk. Thus it agrees with all that is said of it

Stant Manibus arae, by the ancient writers; there being “ Caeruleis moeftae vittis, utraque no exception to be made, except cupreso. that the seeds do not grow in a pod. But Theophrastus does not call it. But this learned Critick might have absolutely a pod, but a sort of a read in Varro's fifth book de Lingua pod, iu iwem zivi; and indeed aw@os Latina, that the Romans had a Feftiis used by the Greek writers in many val called Fontinalia, on which they other fenfes, though it does molt crowned the fountains with garproperly and generally signify what lands ; “ Fontinalia a fonte, quod we call a pod.

" is dies feriae ejus. Ab 40. Spargite humum foliis.] It tum, et in fontes coronas jaciunt, was a custom among the Ancients, et puteos coronant.' He might to scatter leaves and flowers on the have read also in the ninth Eclogue, ground in honour of eminent perfons'; and some traces of this cus

Quis hùmum florentibus tom remain among us at present.

" herbis Inducite fontibus umbras.] Pierius Spargeret ? aut viridi fontes ino found this reading in most of the « duceret umbra."


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eo autem

Et tumulum facite, et tumulo fuperaddite carmen. Raifa alfa a monument, and add

a verja to the monument. I. Daphnis ego in fylvis hinc usque ad fidera notus :

Daphnia am celebrated froma Formosi pecoris custos formosior ipse.

thefa-woods open to the skies Men. Tale tuum carmen nobis, divine poeta ; 45

the fepberd of a beautiful

but more beautiful myself. Men. Your Song, O divine Poet, is so less deligbtful to me,



« ftone;

an age,

5 Pope has imitated this passage, in rural employments of the shepherd his fourth Pastoral ;:.

Daphnis ; but Virgil represents his

Daphnis, as a person, whose fame " Ye weeping loves, the stream had reached up to heaven. “ with myrtles hide,

44. Formoji pecoris cuftos, &c.] " And break your bows, as when Catrou is of opinion, that this men« Adonis dyd;

tion of the beauty of Daphnis a" And with your golden darts, now grees very well with Virgil's brother, 65'useless grown,..

who was a young shepherd. But " Inscribe a verse on this relenting he thinks it a cold compliment to

Caesar, 'who was fifty-six years old, « Let nature change, let heav'n when he was murdered, " and earth deplore,

when men do not use to be admired * Fair Daphne's dead, and love is for their beauty. But we are to now no more.

consider, that if Julius Caesar was

- the subject of this Eclogue, he is all 42. Tumulum.] A heap of earth along represented under the characfor a monument.

ter of a shepherd ; that nothing is Carmen.]: An Epigram or In-. more frequent than to speak of great fcription, which is thought to be rulers as shepherds; and in the last best, when contained in two lines. place, that this hero is described by

43. Daphnis 'ego, &c.] This the Historians -as having a very diftich far exceeds that, which it comely person. We may therefore seems to imitate, in the first Idyl- very well understand, this expresion lium of Theocritus;

of his being more beautiful himself

than his beautiful flock, to mean, Δάφνις έγων όδε τηνος και τας βόας ώδε that Julius Caefar ruled the greateft νομεύων,

nation in the world, and that he

himself was the most excellent perΔάφνης και τως ταύρως και σύρτιας ώδε σοτίσδων. .

son among them.

45. Tale tuum carmen, &c.] Me" That Daphnis I, that here my nalcas greatly commends the Poëtry oxen fed,

of Mopfus ; and modesty offers to “ That here my bulls and cows' to sing some verses, which he himself "water led."? Creech. had composed on the same subject.

Virgil seems in this place to have The Greek Poet mentions only the had in his view the following verfes


tban sleeping on the grass to the Quale fopor fessis in gramine, quale per aestum weary; no lefotban quenching Dulcis aquae faliente

fitim restinguere rivo. living fream of sweet water. Nec calamis folum aequiparas, fed voce magiftrum. You equal your master, not only in playing, but in finging too.


in the eighth Idyllium of Theo


'Αδύ τι το στόμα του, και εφήμερος, ώ

Δάφνι, φωνά.
Κρέσσον μελπομένω τευ ακουέμεν ή

μέλι λείχειν. .

is Not half so sweet are midnight

66 winds, that move " In drowsie murmurs o'er the

" waving grove; " Nor dropping waters, that in

grots distil, “ And with a tinkling found their

caverns fill.”


6 Sweet is thy voice, and sweet the 48. Nec calamis folum, &c.] Ser“ tunes you play'd,

vius thinks this alludes to Theocritus « Fair Daphnis, thro' my ears thy and Virgil. But he is certainly • songs have past,

mistaken; for it is Mopfus that is “ Sweet to the mind, as honey to said to equal his master : now Vir66 the taste. CREECH. gil is not Mopfus, but Menalcas."

* Ruaeus thinks, that Daphnis is the But how far the copy exceeds the master of Mopsus. But, if we original, is very obvious. : Theocri- : agree with this learned Commentus compares the sweetness of the tator, that Daphnis is Julius Caesar, poëtry of Daphnis to the taste of it will be very difficult to comprehoney ; ; but Virgil is more copious. i hend, how Mopfus can be said to be He compares the song of Mopsus to equal, or second to that great man.. the resting of wearied limbs on the Virgil himself is Menalcas's Megrafs, and to the quenching of thirst nalcás is by no means inferior to in summer with a living spring of Mopfus'; and therefore, according sweet water. The Greek Poct to this interpretation, Virgil must barely mentions honey. but Virgil represent himself as equal to Julius is not contented with the bare ment, Caesar, which is absurd: Catrou. tion of sleep: it is the sleep of a weary, thinks this line is a full confirmaperson; and that upon the freth tion of his system. “ If there has. grass

. Thus also he does not only: “ hitherto, says he, been any querspeak of quenching thirst with wa « tion, whether this Eclogue treats ter; but this thirst is augmented by : “ of a master and scholar, there? it's being in the heat of summer, “ cannot now be any longer doubt. the water alfo is sweet, and is taken: “ Virgil is charmed with the fine from a living spring. Philips has “ verses of his fcholar. He reimitated this paffage, in his fourth " tracts what he had said at the Paftoral;

beginning of the conversation."

" He

Fortunate puer, tu nunc eris alter ab illo :

o fortunate youth, you shall Nos tamen haec quocunque modo tibi noftra vi- nowo be accounted'the next to

bim. But now I will fing to cissim,

50 you my verses also, such as ebey Dicemus, Daphninque tuum tollemus ad astra : are, in my turn; and will lift

up your Dapbnis to ibe fars,


66 verses ;

“ He had given Alexander the ho- take so much upon him, as to ap

nour only of the pipe, and had plaud Mopsus, and call him a divine “ taken to himself that of singing Poet, for being equal to himself. It

seems most probable, that Theo

critus was the master intended, " Tu calamos inflare leves, ego di- whom Virgil professedly imitates in cere versus.

his Eclogues.

49. Tu nunc eris alter ab illo.] “ But now he confesses himself to Servius interprets this Tu folus post " be equalled in both by his dif- illum bucolicum carmen fcribis. La

ciple.” This argument is not Cerda paraphrases it, Nam poft illum weak; for Menalcas does indeed at eris, jam nunc alter magifter opinione the beginning challenge to himself mortalium. Both these Commenthe superiority in singing, and al tators therefore seem to understand low Mopfus to excel in piping ; and these words to mean, that Mopsus in this place he confesses that Mop- is worthy to succeed Theocritus, fus equals his master not only in the and to be esteemed his equal. But latter but in the former too. There Catrou understands it in a quite diffore, by comparing the second line ferent manner.

" The equality with the forty-eighth, we might “ that Virgil has made between conclude that Menalcas was the 66 Alexander and himself is always master, and Mopsus the disciple. « accompanied with fubordination. But, however this argument may

" You shall be the first after your be in Catrou's favour, there are " master, says he. It was always others which make no less against a great matter for Alexander to him,

The fear which Menalcas “ be preferred before Cebes." discovers of disobliging Mopsus, his 50. Nos tamen haec quocunque perpetual complaisance to him, and modo, &c.] Menalcas speaks with the modesty with which he intro great modesty of his own verfes. duces his own verses, by no means He makes an apology for them, and agree with the superiority of a seems to offer them only as being master,

Nor does the freedom, obliged to produce something in his which Mopsus uses to Menalcas fuit turn. with the character of a disciple. 51. Daphninque tuum tollemus ad Menalcas always speaks like a mo- aftra.] By your Daphnis seems to deft person, such as Virgil himself is be meant your patron, or your farepresented to have been. It cannot vorite. By tollemus ad astra is meant therefore be imagined, that he would the apotheosis of Daphnis.


52. Amavit


I will raise Daphnis to the Daphnin ad aftra feremus: amavit nos quoque fars; for Dapbnis loved me

Daphnis. also.

Mor. Is it possible to lay a Mop. An quicquam nobis tali sit munere majus ? greater obligation upon me? Et puer ipfe fuit cantari dignus : et ifta Not only the youth bimself was woreby to be celebrated;

NOT E, S. 52. Amavit nas quoque Daphnis.] self, in the ninth Eclogue, that he This sentence, in the opinion of faved his lands by his verses ; Catrou, is a sufficient proof, that Julius Caesar is not Daphnis. “The « Omnia carminibus veftrum fer<< Poet, says he had not appeared “ vafle Menalcam." " in the world in the life-time of < this Dictator. There is, in this Thus it is plain, that he had written so verse alone, a difficulty insur- something considerable enough, to “ mountable to those, who ac obtain the favour of Auguftus, with“ knowledge Caesar for the subject in three years after the murder of “ of this Eclogue.” It must be Julius Caesar. Perhaps it might be acknowledged indeed, that it does this very Eclogue, wherein he lanot appear from any history now ments the death of that great man, extant, that. Virgil was in favour and celebrates his admiffion among with Julius Caesar, or even so much the gods, that gained him this faas, known to him. But although your. But whether that lucky this cannot be certainly proved, it is Poem was the present Eclogue, or far from improbable: for Virgil's any other composition, it seems not estate lay near. Mantua, a city, of very difficult to suppose, that a the Cisalpine Gaul, which was Poet, who was capable of preCaefar's favourite province. Ru- serving his estate by his verses, aeus thinks it enough, that Caesar might three years before recommend favoured the Mantuans, for. Virgil himself to the notice of the Dictato say amavit nos quoque. But, if tor by his poetry.

tor by his poetry. We may there. we consider, that Julius Caesar was fore conclude, from the words behimself a learned man, and a fa- fore us, that our Poet had been favourer of letters, we shall think it youred by Julius Caesar, notwithnot absurd, to suppose, that a ge- standing the silence of the authors nius like that of Virgil was not un of his life, in this particular. known to him. It is allowed that 53. An quicquam, &c.] Mopsus the Eclogue, which is commonly expresses an ardent desire of hearing placed first, was written within three these verses of Menalcas, and adds

, years after Caesar was murdered. that he had already heard them The subject of it is, the Poet's much commended. grateful acknowledgment of the 54. Puer.] Servius obferves, that preservation of his farm by Au- this must be understood of Daphnis

, gustus. This could not be the first because Caesar was not a boy, but of his works; since he tells us him a man advanced in years, when he


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