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Interitum montesque feri sylvaeque loquuntur: .nl that even the Libyan lions la

mented by dearb. Daphnis Daphnis et Armenias curru subjungere tigres

taught men to yoak tigers to a cbariot :


they were heard any where, but in the scene in Sicily is of no service their own habitations in Africa. to Catrou's system ; fince it is imNor does there seem to be any occa- possible, either that the groans of

fion for that appearance of exact- the family could be heard in Africa, i nels, in placing the scene in Sicily ; or the roaring of the lions, so far

fince even that island lies at such a as Sicily. Thus the scene may as distance from Africa, as to make it well be laid near Mantua, one ima most absurd imagination, that possibility being as good as another. the roaring of lions could be heard For my own part, I take the Poet's so far. According to Strabo, the meaning to be, that the death of very shortest passage from Lily baeum, Daphnis, caused so universal a grief, the nearest promontory of Sicily, to that even the wild beasts in the deCarthage is fifteen hundred stadia; farts lamented him, à thought, which and he speaks of it as a most incre- has been shewn already to be taken dible story, that a very quick-lighted from Theocritus. man is said to have discovered from 29. Daphnis et Armenias, &c.] thence the setting out of the Car “ This plainly alludes to Caesar; thaginian feet from their port; “ for it is certain, that he first of "Έστι δε και από Λιλυβαίου τουλαχισ “all brought the folemnities of LiΤου διαρμα επί Λιβύην χίλιοι και ber pater to Rome." SERVIUS. wevlaxócio: wapi Kapxendóvã x@J?.5 :. Ruaeus calls the authority of Serδή λέγεται τις των όξυδορκούντων από νίus in queftion; and affirms, that

the folemnities of Bacchus were tivos oxom as duayennev. Tèr ápotknown at Rome long before. He μόν των αγομένων έκ Καρχηδόνος σκα therefore thinks, it may rather be GWv taīs év Aunufaiy. The roaring said, that they were afterwards ceof the Carthaginian lions therefore lebrated with greater magnificence must have been heard above 170 of by Julius Caesar, because he obour measured miles. But we will tained a signal victory over the fons be as favourable as we can to this of Pompey at Munda, on the very system, and take for Carthage the day of the Liberalia, on which day nearest land of Africa, which is the Pompey is said to have gone out to promontory of Mercury, the dif

war four years before. These diffitance of which from Lilybaeum is culties have given room to Catrou, 700 ftadia, or 80 of our miles. to triumph over those, who will Even then the lions must have have Julius Caesar to be intended roared as loud as so many pieces of under the name of Daphnis. “The artillery, to be heard in any part of “ desire, says he, of finding Julius Siçily Therefore this placing of Caesar in this place, has made


Dapbnis taugbe'ebem to tead up Instituit : "Daphnis Thiasos inducere Baccho, dances to Bacchus,



66 Servius invent a fact which never were not used in Caesar's time; « existed. This Commentator pre- perhaps he might restore them, and « tends, that Caefar firft inftituted therefore be faid to institute them. to at Rome the feasts of Bacchus. We know that Mark Anthony, ç He is greatly mistaken, for we Caesar's great favourité, affected to “ find mention of them in almost imitate Bacchus, being drawn in a “all the Latin authors, and parti- chariot, crowned with ivy, and "cularly in Livy. Since the time holding a thyrfe. See the note on " of Servius, they have contented ver. 7. of the second Georgick. & themselves with saying, that per- But however, if conjectures have $6 haps Caesar added a lustre to thefe been formed, in order to reconcile « feasts. This is guefling ; for is 'this passage with Julius Caesar's $6 it inftituting the feasts of Bacchus, actions; it is by no means to be 66 to adorn them with new ceremo inferred from thence, that we are 66 nies? Inflituit Daphnis thiafos int at liberty to form what conjectures $ ducere Baccho. But since leave we please about Virgil's brother, “ is taken to guess, why may not Some passages in this Eclogue, can

I also guess, that Virgil's bro- hardly be applied to any other per$ther was the first, who established fon than Julius Caefar, whence it * the feasts of Bacchus in his vil is not unreasonable to suppose, that

We know it was a coun this had fome relation to him, though try solemnity; that the peasants it cannot be abfolutely verified by s celebrated it with sports, and that any Historian now extant. It seems “ they composed rastic songs in ho- very probable, that Caefar might “ nour of this god. Certainly we may perform fome ceremonies in honour 4 formi conjectures on the circum- of Bacchus, as it was on one of his *6 stances, when the foundation is festivals, that he obtained the figa * grounded upon proof.” But Ca- nal victory over the fons of Pompey trou does not argue very fairly, when at Munda. This victory appeared he quotes the authority of Livy, to so considerable, that, according to prove that the feasts of Bacchus were Plutarch, 6 When he came back known in Rome before Caesar's “..from the fight, he told his friends, time What we find in Livy is in 66 that he had often fought for his thirty-ninth book, where he victory, but this was the first gives a large account of most abo 6 time that he had ever fought for minable debaucheries, and horrid

66 life.”

The victory was obtained crimes, that were perpetrated in the on the feast of the Dionyfia, in PlüBacchanalia, which occafioned the tarch's words, tū tōv Alovutíw topra, Senate to abolish these folemnities, which the Romans called Liberalia; above a century before Caesar's for thus Hirtius fpeaks of the very time. This is ' no proof that they fame battle ; * Ipfis Liberalibus

66 fuli

$6 Jage.

Et foliis lentas intexere mollibus hastas.

and to cover bending spears with

tender foliage. NOTES

“ fufi fugatique non superfuissent, son épav ápíxelo, étspiñon. The Pa“ nisi in eum locum confugissent, rilia or Palilia was observed on the “ ex quo erant egrefli.” Now the twenty-first of April. ' Hirtius also Dionysia or Liberalia could not be tells us, that young Pompey's head the same festival with the Baccha

was brought to Caefar, on the nalia, which we read of in Livy ; twelfth of April. “Ad convallem for the Historian tells us, they were

autem atque exefum locum ut at first celebrated three times in the

" speluncam Pompeius fe occultare year, and afterwards five times in a

coepit, ut a noftris non facile-inmonth; but we know that the Li

“ veniretur, nifi captivorum indiberalia was an annual festival, ob « cio. Ita ibi interficitur. Quum ferved on the seventeenth of March.“ Caefar gradiebatur Hispalim, priThe country solemnity, of which

« die Id. Aprilis caput allatum, et Catrou speaks, was in autumn, in “ populo datum eft in conspectum." the time of vintage, a very diffe- Thus we have the concurrent testirent feafon from that of the Libe- monies of Hirtius and Plutarch, that ralia, But since many confound this victory was obtained on the the several feasts of Bacchus toge- very day of a festival of Bacchus ; ther, as if they were but one, I and of Hirtius and Dio, that it was fhall beg leave to make a few obfer- fome time before the end of April. vations, whereby it will appear, that Now there is not any festival of the battle of Munda could not have Bacchus at that time of the year, in been on any other festival of Bac- 'the Roman Calendar, except that chus, than that which was cele- of March 10; which must therebrated in March. Dio Caffius says fore be the Dionysia of Plutarch, the expressly, that Caefar was obliged Liberalia of Hirtius, and the day of to march against Pompey's sons in Caesar's victory.

Caesar's victory. It is therefore far winter ; Μετα δε ταύτά αυτός τε from improbable, that Caesar might αναρρωσθείς, και τα στρατεύματα hew fome particular regard to Bacεπακολουθήσαύτα οι προσλαβών, ηναγ- chus, fince he had obtained one xáo In xj év tū xem pãre worruñozs; of his most considerable victories and that the news of the victory at

on a day facred to that deity ; Munda was brought to Rome the

nor is it very improbable, that evening before the Parilia ; and when Anthony was drawn in a chathat facrifices were therefore offered riot, with the thyrse, and other infigOn that feftival; Τα τε γαρ Παρίλια πια of Bacchus, he might do it in

imitation of his great master Caesar. ιπποδρόμια αθανάτων, ούτοιγε και δια

Armenias tigres.] They used to Tùy cóxiv, ru lv avtoīs četiolo anaa yoke tygers, to draw the chariot of dia thn toũ Kairapos víxnu, Tu ý Bacchus. Julius Caesar obtained a αγγελιά αυτής τη προτεραία προς great victory over Pharmaces, king of


As the vine is an ornament to Vitis ut arboribus decori est, ut vitibus uvae, trees, as clusters tatbe wines, as Ut gregibus Tauri, segetes ut pinguibus arvis; ; the fruitful fields ; fu waft thou Tu decus omne tuis: poftquam te fata tulerunt, ebe+wbole glory of (by friends : Ipfa Pales agros, atque ipfe reliquit Apollo. 35 after the fates took thee away, sven Pales, and Apollo themselves forsook the fields.'


Pontus, a country bordering on Ar- elms by which it is supported. Thus menia.

Philips ; Curru.] For currui.

30. Thiafos.] Thiasus is a solemn " As corn the vales, and trees the singing and dancing, used at festi

66 hills adorn, vals.

" So thou to thine an ornament was Baccho.] Pierius observes, that

66 born. the printed editions generally have “ Since thou, delicious youth, didit Baccho, but that it is Bacchi in all “ quit the plains, the ancient manuscripts.

" Thi ungrateful ground we till 31. Et foliis lentas, &c.] This « with fruitless pains; is what they called a thyrse : it was a " In labour'd furrows fow the spear twisted round with branches

choice of wheat, of Vine and Ivy; which those, “And over empty sheaves in har: who affifted at the folemnities of C6 veft sweat: Bacchus, used to carry in their “ A thin increase our woolly subhands, leaping and singing at the

stance yield, fame time.

“ And thorns and thistles overspread 32. Vitis ut arboribus, &c.] This 66 the field.” beautiful passage is truly pastoral, and far exceeds one of the fame kind 35. Ipfa Pales, &c.] Thesc in the eighth Idyllium of Theo two deities are mentioned together critus;

also at the beginning of the third

Georgick; Τα δρυ ται βάλανοι κόσμος, τα μα

“ Te quoque, magna Pales, et te, Τα βοι δ' α μόσχος, το βωκόλω ας memorande, canemus βόες αυται. .

" Paßor ab Amphryfo. ' “. Acorns the oaks, and grass com- See the note on that paffage. “ mends the plain;

This desertion of the fields by the « Fat calves do grace the cows, and goddess of thepherds and the god of cows the fwain.”

musick and poëtry is a figurative CREECH. expression of the grief of the thep

herds for the loss of Daphnis. They By the vine being an ornament to were so afflicted, that they neglected the trees, is meant it’s adorning the the care of their sheep, and had incos

λίδι μάλα"

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Grandia faepe quibus mandavimus hordea sulcis, Often in obose furrews, in

wbich we have fown plump Infelix lolium, et fteriles dominantur avenae.

barley, the unbappy darnel and Pro molli viola, pro purpureo Narcisso,

the wild oats prevail. Por the Carduus et fpinis surgit paliurus acutis.

soft violet, for the purple daffodil, ibe tbifle arises, and the

paliurus with pointed tborns.. NOTES.

not spirits to fing, in which their prickly, and joins it with the bramchief diversion confifted.

ble ; ο δε βάτος και ο Παλίουρος 36. Quibus.] Pierius found qui- xautúdn. In lib. 3. c, 4. he says. dem in fome ancient manuscripts.

it grows in the plains ; ta de xaifu 37. Infelix lolium, &c.] This line occurs again in the Frt Geor τους πεδίοις, μυρίκη, στελέα, λεύκη, gick, ver

. 154. See the note. But irén, aiyespos, xpaveio, Innuxpaveía, Pierius obferves, that dominantur is uningpa, spūs, aandIn, axpa's, funa to be found only in the printed co- λέα, οστρύα, κύλαστρον, μελία, Παpies of this Eclogue, it being naf- ríoupos, Euéxavfa, äravdos. In cuntur in all the ancient manuscripts c. 17. he tells us it bears three or that he had seen. He observes, that four feeds in a sort of pod, that the it is dominantur indeed in the Geor- feed has an oiliness like that of fax, gicks, where the verses are more that it grows in the same places numerous, than in the Bucolicks. with the bramble, and that the

38. Pro molli viola.] The soft- leaves fall off every year ; O.Te llanefs and delicacy of this fweet Hower λίoυρος έχει διαφορας, άπαντα δε is oppoted to the harpnefs of the ταύτα καρποφόρα και όγε Παλίουρος prickly plants mentioned prefently εν λοβό τίνι τον καρπόν έχει, και υπερ after.

Pro purpureo narcio.] There is των φύλλων, ενώ τρία ή τέτταρα γίa species of white daffodil, with a νεται" χρωνίαι δε αυτούς προς τους βήpurple cup. See the note on ver. χας οι ιατροί κόπloντες" έχει γαρ 122. of the fourth Georgick. Pur- Tívogacoxpółnta rý altos, WOTED TO pureus is alfo frequently ufed for any του λίνου σπέρμα φύλαι δε και επί bright or beautiful colour; though τους εφύδροις, και εν τοις ξηρούς, ώσvery different from what we now

περ ο βάτος, ουχ ήτίον δε έσι το δένcall purple.

39. Spinis furgit paliurus acutis.] dipov wépudcov Qurhofónov de sy ouze There has been fome controversy WOTES i papvos desquadov. Diofco among the modern writers, con rides and Pliny say little more of the cerning the paliurus of the Ancients. Paliurus, than that it is a well Theophraftus, lib. 1. c. 5. tells us known, prickly shrub. Columella, it is a shrub; Ø púzqvov. (it ought to

when he gives directions about be Fépvos) Ši to amo piz ns xai wolus making a quick hedge, recommends στέλεχες, και πολύκλαδον, οίον βάτος, bramble, Paliurus,

the strongest thorns, such as the

and white Taniouposo In cap. 8, he says it is thorn ; " Ea fint váltifimarum fpi


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