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that this favour such

other was far from I

Atque Deos atque astra vocat crudelia mater.

called both tbe gods and tbe con

stellations cruel.

NOT E s. “ et aequales.” Thus Philips ; « it is probable that his mother was

- yet alive, and made her cries be “ The pious mother comes, with “ heard even to heaven." CATROU. “ grief oppress'd ;

But, with this learned Critick’s “.Ye conscious trees and fountains, leave, I may venture to say, that " can attest, i

not one of the interpretations men• With what sad accents and what tioned by him is more obscure than * « moving cries

his favourite system. That Virgil " She fill’d the grove, and impor- ever had such a brother, or if he “ tun'd the skies,

had, that his mother was alive to “ And ev'ry star upbraided with his lament his death, is very far from 6 death,

being certain. For my own part, I “ When in her widow'd arms, de rather believe, that Venus is the “ void of breath,

mother here mentioned; and I am " She clafp'd her son."

confirmed in this opinion, by an al

most parallel passage in the fifteenth 23. Mater.] Ruaeus is of opi- book of the Metamorphoses. Ovid nion that Rome is here meant; the there represents Venus to be terriPoet calling that city the mother of fied at the approach of Caesar's Julius Caesar.

death; she discovers all the fears :“ It is certain, that Julius Cae- and tenderness of a mother; con“ far had no mother alive, at the siders the injury as offered to her" time of his murther. Those self; intercedes with the gods for " therefore, who will at all ad- his preservation ; smites her own “ ventures have him to be the per- breast, and endeavcurs to hide him “ fon intended, have recourse to in the same cloud, in which she had “ interpretations more ingenious preserved Paris and Aeneas; and as “ than true. Some fancy, that un- soon as he is killed, comes into the “ der the figure of this mother, fenate-house invisible, keeps his " who holds her son in her arms, foul from being mixed with the “.we are to understand Calpurnia, common air, and carries it up to. " the wife of Caesar. Others that the sky, where it kindles, and be65Rome is designed under this alle- comes a star. “gory. Others again that Venus " is here represented, who was the “- Quod ut aurea vidit “ mother of the whole Julian race. « Aeneae genitrix ; vidit quoque “ It is easy enough to perceive, . “ triste parari “ without any other proofs, that “ Pontifici letum ; et conjurata ar" these are supplements to truth, « ma moveri ; " where truth itself is wanting. « Palluit: et cunctis, ut cuique .." With regard to Virgil's brother, « erat obvia, divis;

03

her.

Thad

felf; inte, injury as offeredera con

ho will at all bofe

his came and ended, in

terhole Juliaeceive,

Pontifici !

“ these areruth itfelfrid's brother,

66 Alpice

O Dapbnis, during ebose days, Non ulli paftos illis egere diebus,

NO TE S. “ Afpice, dicebat, quanta mihi 24. Non ulli paftos, &c.] Mol56 mole parentur

chus, in his Epitaph on Bion, in** Insidiae, quantaque caput cum troduces the herds mourning for his " fraude petatur, .

death, and refusing to feed; " Quod de Dardanio folum mihi 66 reftat Iulo.

vai Bóes ai Woti taupois o .

- lasóuevzi gotovlog xj oux Fénorte

ve curi nuosade x auxe Torte " In me acui sceleratos cer

végeofab. “ nitis enfes, « Quos prohibete, precor, facinus

* Thus also Philips ;

Tk $6 que repellite ; neve $6. Caede facerdotis flammas extin- “ No joyous pipe was heard, no “ guite Veftae.

« flocks were feen, 66 Talia nequicquam toto Venus « Nor shepherds found upon the . " anxia caelo

“ grassy green; « Verba jacit, superofque movet. “ No cattle graz'd the field, nor

drunk the food, “ Tumi vero Cytherea manu per- " No birds were heard to warble " cuflit utraque

" thro' the wood.” “ Pectus ; et Aeneaden molitur os condere nube,

“ Nothing can be more elegantly « Quo prius infefto Paris est ereptus “ expressed, says Catrou, than this Atridae,

" rural grief. It might happen $ Et Diomedeos Aeneas fugerat “ literally at the death of Virgil's " enfes.

“ brother : but with regard to ma

- - - - 66 Caefar, it can be understood on “ Vix ea fatus erat; media cum $6 ly in figure, and in metaphor. “ fede Senatus

But in opposition to this, a paflage « Constitit alma Venus nulli cer- is quoted from Suetonius; where os nenda ; suique

we are told, that this very thing 56 Caefaris eripuit membris, nec in happened just beforė Caesar's death " aëra folvi ,

The historian tells us, that the " Passa recentem animam, caelefti. horses, which that great man had “ bus intulit astris,

consecrated, when he passed the “ Dumque tulit, lumen capere, Rubicon, and had fed at large ever ' « atque ignescere sensit: fince, were observed to abstain from “ Emisitque sinu. Luna volat al- their food; « Proximis diebus e" tius illa :

" quorum greges, quos in trajic! Flammiferumque trahens spą- “ endo Rubicone Aumine conte - tioso limite crinem

« craret, ac vagos et fine cultode of Stella micat.”

“ dimiserat, comperit pertinacillim

ço pabulo Frigida; Daphni, boves ad Aumina : nulla neque no one drove the well fed kine to

the cool freains : nor did any amnem

25 borse taste of the river, or touch Libavit quadrupes, nec graminis attigit herbam. a blade of grass.

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“ pabulo' abftinere, ubertimque which is the most generous and use" Here.” This is a strong argu- ful of all quadrupeds. The word is ment in favour of their opinion, used in several other places by Virgil; who think Julius Caesar was, in- and in almost every one of them it ended under the name of Daphnis. plainly signifies a horse. Thus we

25. Nulla.] La Cerda obferves, read in the third Aeneid; hat the using of two negatives in his place, nulla neque is a Gre- " Quatuor hic, primum omen, equos ism; because in Greek two ne « in gramine vidi atives make the negation stronger, " Tondentes campum late, candore vhereas in Latin they make an af- ' $6 nivali: . . Irmative. Some would read ulla « Et pater Anchises: bellum, ere instead of nulla. But the best « terra hospita portás: Criticks approve of nulla, and al- « Bello armantur equi : bellum haec iw it, with La''Cerda, to be a 66 armenta minantur : frecism. We find nulla used in 6 Sed tamen iidem olim curru sucke manner by Propertius, in the “ cedere sueti ineteenth Elegy of his second Book; “ Quadrupedes ; et fraena jugo

66 concordia ferre.Nullus erit caftis juvenum corp" ruptor in agris,

And in the eighth ; “Qui te blanditiis non finat effe $1756 probam

" -- It clamor, et agmine facto Nulla neque ante tuas orietur rixa Quadrupedante putrem fonitu i « fenestras,

" quatit ungula campum.”. * Nec tibi clamatae fomnus a

66 marus erit.” .: And in the tenth;

Bello tema hofpita

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15€ auras,

ibullus indeed makes use of ulla 66 --Jam tandem erumpit, et c, in the first Elegy of his fourth os inter bok; "

66 Bellatoris equi cava tempora con

“ jicit hastam. " Ulla nec aëreas volucris perlabitur 6 Tollit se arrectum quadrupes, et

: 66 calcibus auras Nec quadrupes densas depafcitur < Verberat, effufumque equitem *** aspera fylvas.”

« super ipse secutus .

Implicat, ejectoque incumbit cera 26. Quadrupes.] I have folwed Ruaeus in rendering it a horses

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« Implicatus asmo.

O Dopbnis, the defart mountains Daphni, tuum Poenos etiam ingemuisse leones and woods declare,

" Peci quadri ingentina

, NOTES: " 07" viens And in the eleventh ; '. Tñvou pão Jões, sñvou aúxos espí

COUTO, « Continuo adverfis Tyrrhenus et Τήνου χω και δρυμοίο λέων αν έκλαυσε 66 acer Aconteus

JavóUTC. « Connixi incurrunt hastis, primi- ;

“ que ruinam « Dant fonitu ingenti, perfractaque

« For him the wolves, the pards, 6 quadrupedantum

" and tygers moan'd; in " Pectora pectoribus rumpunt.”

“For him with frightful grief the

“ lions groan'd.” CREECH. And again, ,.' .

Ruaeus seems to think, that this " At juvenis, vicisse dolo ratus,

mention of the African lions alludes .." avolat ipse,

to the victories obtained by Julius “ Haud mora, converfisque fugax

Caesar, in Africa, over Cato, Scipio, ... " aufertur habenis,

and Juba. Catrou seems under a " Quadrupedemque citum ferrata great difficulty, to make this pallage '.

6. It will be . calce fatigat.”

suit with his system.
<thought surprizing, says he, that

“ the death of a country-man . And again, iii

* should be lamented so far as " Quadrupedumque putrem cursu

“ Africa. I allow it; but Virgil

“ had already obtained friends, and “ quatit ungula campum.” i

“ reputation in all places, where

" Rome had colonies, armies, and The only place, where quadrupes is

66. governors. Without doubt, this used for any other animal is in the

** Favourite of Maecenas and Oetaseventh Aeneid ; and there indeed

66 vian received condolances from it signifies a stag; !

« all parts. Besides, Sicily, where

“ the scene of this Eclogue seems “ Saucius at quadrupes nota inter« to have been laid, was not very «6! tecta refugit,"

" far distant from Africa. It might

** therefore be feigned poëtically, 27. Poenos' leones.] Carthage " that the groans of an afflicted was a famous city of Africa. He “ family were heard even to Africa, therefore fays Carthaginian lions, This seems very extravagant; and for African.' Africa abounds with Virgil does - not speak of the groans Jions and other wild beasts. Theo- of the afflicted' fainily; but only critus represents the lions lamenting says the mountains and woods ecDáphnis in the woods ; and joins choed the lamentations of the lions. other wild beasts with them,

He does not give the least hint, that

they Interitum montesque feri fylvaeque loquuntur. : that even the Libyan lions laDaphnis et Armenias curru subjungere tigres

mented tby death. Daphnis taught men to yoak tigers to a cbariot :

NO T.E s.

they were heard any where, but in the scene in Sicily is of no service their own habitations in Africa. to Catrou's system ; fince it is imNor does there seem to be any occa- possible, either that the groans of fion for that appearance of exact- the family could be heard in Africa, nels, in placing the scene in Sicily; or the roaring of the lions, so far fince even that island lies at such a as Sicily. Thus the scene may as distance from Africa, as to make it well be laid near Mantua, one ima most absurd imagination, that poffibility being as good as another. the roaring of lions could be heard For my own part, I take the Poet's so far. According to Strabo, the meaning to be, that the death of very thortest passage from Lily baeum, Daphnis, caused so universal a grief, the nearest promontory of Sicily, to that even the wild beasts in the deCarthage is fifteen hundred stadia; farts lamented him, à thought, which and he speaks of it as a most incre- has been shewn already to be taken dible story, that a very quick-fighted from Theocritus.

man is said to have discovered from - 29. Daphnis et Armenias, &c.] thence the setting out of the Car- « This plainly alludes to Caesar; thaginian fleet from their port; “ for it is certain, that he first of *Eclı dè xa do Araucaíou touregio- “ all brought the folemnities of Lilov siopp.a Šri Albúny gírsos xoci “ber pater to Rome.” SERVIUS. Wevlax60 101 wępi Kæpyndovci xaby Ruaeus calls the authority of Serδή λέγεται τις των όξυδορκούνων από

i vius in question ; and affirms, that

the folemnities of Bacchus were τίνος σκοπης απαγγέλλειν τον αριθ- known at Rome long before. He μόν των αγομένων εκ Καρχηδόνος σκα- therefore thinks, it may rather be GWY. TOTS év. Actueaiw. The roaring said, that they were afterwards ceof the Carthaginian lions therefore lebrated with greater magnificence must have been heard above 170 of by Julius Caesar, because he obour measured miles. But we will tained a signal victory over the fons be as favourable as we can to this of Pompey at Munda, on the very system, and take for Carthage the day of the Liberalia, on which day nearest land of Africa, which is the Pompey is said to have gone out to promontory of Mercury, the dif- war four years before. These diffitance of which from Lilybaeum is culties have given room to Catrou, - 700 stadia, or 80 of our miles. to triumph over those, who will Even then the lions must have have Julius Caesar to be intended Toared as loud as so many pieces of under the name of Daphnis. “ The artillery, to be heard in any part of " defire,' says he, of finding Julius Diçily. Therefore this placing of Caefas in this place, has made

even then the liomany pieces of " delire, lays this place, has servius

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