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when the morber, embracing the Cum, complexa sui corpus miferabile nati, mijerable body of ber for,



But Joseph Scaliger is of opinion, we find in the old Commentators the that Julius Caesar was the Daphnis two verses quoted above, which of our Poet. To this opinion Ru- confirms this opinion. This learned aeus subscribes, and thinks this Ec- Jesuit professes so great a regard for logue was written, when some old traditions, that he is determined plays or facrifices were celebrated in to interpret the prefent Eclogue achonour of Julius Caesar. This cording to this authority. · But perlearned Critick observes, that it haps some readers may not be fo could not be Saloninus, the pre- fond of old traditions, as to depend tended son of Pollio, who is said to on the authority either of that dihave died young, and therefore ftich, or of the life of Virgil afcribed could not yoak tigers to his chariot, to Donatus. I shall add one obserand institute dances to Bacchus: norvation, that Daphnis could not be Quintilius Cremonensis, who did that Quintilius Varus, to whom not die till the year 730, long after the sixth Eclogue is generally supall the Eclogues were finished. As posed to be addressed; for he was for the notion of Flaccus, he thinks Iain by the Germans, several years it improbable, that a Poet, so re after the death of Virgil. Upon markable for his modesty, should the whole it seems most probable

, celebrate his own brother, an ob- that Virgil designed to celebrate, fcure perfon, in so sublime a man either merely the Sicilian shepherd

Catrou allows, that several Dapbnis, whose death Theocritus pallages in this Eclogue agree per- laments, in his first Idyllium ; or fectly well with Julius Caesar; but else Julius Caesar, which last 1 at the same time he finds several think is the general opinion. Cruothers to be inexplicable, supposing deli funere may be referred to either he was the subject of the poem. He of them; for Daphnis is said to allows also, that it appears more have died for love, and Julius Caencble to make a hero the subject, far was murdered. The lamentathan an obscure young man, brought tion of the Nymphs is most appliup in the country: but he appre- cable to the Sicilian Daphnis. tiends that this is the real truth; 21. Vos coryli teftes et flumina. which he supports by the following This apostrophe to the inanimated arguments. 1. The author of Vir- beings is very poëtical and beautigil's life affirms in express words, ful. The fame figure is used also that he lamented the death of his by the orators: thus Cicero, in his brother Flaccus, under the name of oration for Milo ; 66 Vos eniin AlDaphnis: “ Amifit ...

66 Amisit.... Flaccum " bani tumuli, atque luci, vos, in“ jam adultum, cujus exitum fub

quam, imploro atque obtestor, “ nomine Daphnidis deflet."

volque Albanorum obrutae arae, This tradition was spread so far, that “ facrorum populi Romani fociac,




66 death,

Atque Deos atque astra vocat crudelia mater.

called both tbegods and the con

stellations cruel.

NOTES. " et aequales.” Thus Philips ; “ it is probable that his mother was

« yet alive, and made her cries be The pious mother comes, with heard even to heaven." CATROU. “ grief oppress'd;

But, with this learned Critick's “.Ye conscious trees and fountains, leave, I may venture to say, that can attest,

not one of the interpretations menE" With what sad accents and what tioned by him is more obscure than “ moving cries

his favourite system. That Virgil “ She filld the grove, and impor- ever had such a brother, or if he “ tun'd the skies,

had, that his mother was alive to “ And ev'ry star upbraided with his lament his death, is very far from

being certain. For

my own part, I “When in her widow'd arms, de- rather believe, that Venus is the c void of breath,

mother here mentioned, and I am - She clafp'd her son.

confirmed in this opinion, by an al

most parallel passage in the fifteenth 23. Mater.] Ruaeus is of opi- book of the Metamorphoses. Ovid lion that Rome is here meant; the there represents Venus to be terriPoet calling that city the mother of fied at the approach of Caesar's ulius Cacfar.

death; she discovers all the fears “ It is certain, that Julius Cae- and tenderness of a mother; confar had no mother alive, at the siders the injury as offered to hertime of his murther. i Those self; intercedes with the gods for therefore, who will at all ad- his preservation ; smites her own - ventures have him to be the per- breast, and endeavours to hide him

fon intended, have recourse to in the fame cloud, in which she had interpretations more ingenious preserved Paris and Aeneas; and as

Some fancy, that un socn as he is killed, comes into the der the figure of this mother, fenate-house invisible, keeps his who holds her son in her arms, foul from being mixed with the we are to understand Calpurnia, common air, and carries it up to the wife of Caesar. Others that the sky, where it kindles, and beRome is designed under this alle

comes a star. gory, Others again that Venus is here represented, who was the

Quod ut aurea vidit mother of the whole Julian race. « Aeneae genitrix ; vidit quoque It is easy enough to perceive,

« triste parari without any other proofs, that Pontifici letum ; et conjurata arthese are supplements to truth,

ma moveri ; where truth itself is wanting. “ Palluit: et cunctis, ut cuique With regard to Virgil's brother, “ erat obvia, divis;

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than true.

66 Aspice

O Dapbnis, during bose days, Non ulli paftos illis egere diebus, ,



66 cuflit utraque

“ Afpice, dicebat, quanta mihi 24. Non'ulli pastos, &c.] Mori mole parentur

chus, in his Epitaph on Bion, in* Insidiae, quantaque caput cum troduces the herds mourning for his " fraude petatur,

death, and refusing to feed; « Quod de Dardanio folum mihi 66 restat Iulo.

και αι βόες αι σοτί ταύροις

Πλαζόμεναι γοάουι, και ουκ εθελοντι In me acui fceleratos cer

νέμεσθαι. . “ nitis enfes, “ Quos prohibete, precor, facinus

Thus also Philips ; que repellite; neve Caede facerdotis flammas extin “ No joyous pipe was heard, no “ guite Veftae.

« flocks were feen, “ Talia nequicquam toto Venus « Nor shepherds found upon the " anxia caelo

grafly green; « Verba jacit, fuperofque movet. “ No cattle graz’d the field, not

v drunk the flood, “ Tum vero Cytherea manu per

" No birds were heard to warble

us thro' the wood.” " Pectus; et Aeneaden molitur condere nube,

" Nothing can be more elegantly " Quo prius infefto Paris eft ereptus “ exprefled, says Catrou, than this co Atridae,

" rural grief. It might happen $ Et Diomedeos Aeneas fugerat “ literally at the death of Virgil 66 enses.

“ brother : but with regard

56 Caefar, it can be understood on " Vix ea fatus erat; media cum “ ly in figure, and in metaphor. 56 fede Senatus

But in opposition to this, a paffag, « Conftitit alma Venus nulli cer is quoted from Suetonius; when nenda ; suique

we are told, that this

very “ Caefaris eripuit membris, nec in happened just before Caesar's death 66 aëra folvi

The historian tells


that the " Pasla recentem animam, caelefti• horses, which that great man ha “ bus intulit astris,

confecrated, when he passed that ŚĆ Dumque tulit, lumen capere, Rubicon, and had fed at large eve atque ignescere fenfit:

fince, were observed to abitain from " Emisitque finu. Luna volat al- their-food ; “ Proximis diebus " tius illa :

quorum greges, quos in trajici" Flammiferumque trahens spa « endo Rubicone Aumine confe- tioso limite crinem

craret, ac vagos et fine custode 66 Steila micat."

“ dimiserat, comperit pertinaciffima

“ pabulo


Frigida, Daphni, boves ad Alumina : nullá neque "be cool ftreame : nor did any


25 borse taste of the river, or touche Libavit quadrupes, nec graminis attigit herbam. a blade of grass.



“ pabulo" abftinere, ubertimque which is the most generous and use“ Alere.” This is a strong argu- ful of all quadrupeds. The word is ment in favour of their opinion, used in several other places by Virgil; who think Julius Caesar was in- and in almost every one of them it fended under the name of Daphnis. plainly fignifies a horse. Thus we

25. Nulla.] La Cerda obferves, read in the third Aeneid; that the using of two negatives in this place, nulla neque is a Gre « Quatuor hic, primum omen, equos cism; because in Greek two ne “ in gramine vidi gatives make the negation stronger, " Tondentes campum late, candore whereas in Latin they make an af

$6 nivali : firmative. Some would read ulla “ Et pater Anchises: bellum, o here instead of núlla. But the best « terra hofpita portás: Criticks approve of nulla, and al « Bello armantur equi : bellum haec low it, with La Cerda, to be a

armenta minantur : Grecism. We find nulla used in 66 Sed tamen iidem olim curru suclike manner by Propertius, in the

66 cedere sueti nineteenth Elegy of his second Book; " Quadrupedes ; et fraena jugo

s6 concordia ferre.” Nullus erit cáftis juvenum corruptor in agris,

And in the eighth ; “Qui te blanditiis non finat effe probam

It clamor, et agmine facto neque ante tuas orietur rixa " Quadrupedante putrem

sonitu “ fenestras,

quatit ungula campum.”. U Nec tibi clamatae fomnus amarus erit.”

And in the tenth;

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Tibullus indeed makes use of ulla

Jam tandem erumpit, et lec, in the first Elegy of his fourth

66 inter " Bellatoris equi cava tempora con

jicit hastam. " Ulla nec aëreas volucris perlabitur Tollit se arrectum quadrupes, et auras,

66 calcibus auras " Nec quadrupes denfas depafcitur Verberat, effufumque equitem “ aspera sylvas."

“fuper ipse secutus

o Implicat, ejectoque incumbit cera 26. Quadrupes.] I have fo!

nuus armo. lowed Ruaçus in rendering it a horse,


O Dapbnis, the defart mountains Daphni, tuum Poenos etiam ingemuisse leones and woods declare,


que ruinam

And in the eleventh;

Τηνον μαν θώες, τηνoν λύκοι ωρύ

σαντο, «« Continuo adverfis Tyrrhenus et Τήνον χω και δρυμοίο λέων αν έκλαυσε acer Aconteus

Savóvta. “ Connixi incurrunt hastis, primiDant sonitu ingenti, perfractaque

« For him the wolves, the pards, " quadrupedantum

" and tygers moan'd; - Pectora pectoribus rumpunt.”

“ For him with frightful grief the

“ lions groan'd.” CREECH. And again,

Ruaeus seems to think, that this

mention of the African lions alludes " At juvenis, vicisse dolo ratus, “ avolat ipse,

to the victories obtained by Julius “ Haud mora, converfifque fugax Caefar, in Africa, over Cato, Scipio

, " aufertur habenis,

and Juba. Catrou seems under a Quadrupedemque citum ferrata great difficulty, to make this passage ".calce fatigat.”

suit with his system, “ It will be " thought surprizing, says he, that

16 the death of And again,

a country-man is should be lamented so far as

“ Africa. I allow it; but Virgil " Quadrupedumque putrem cursu

had already obtained friends, and " quatit ungula campum.

“ reputation in all places, where

" Rome had colonies, armies, and The only place, where quadrupes is

“ governors. Without doubt, this used for any other animal is in the

C6 favourite of Maecenas and OEtaseventh Aeneid ; and there indeed

“ vian received condolances from it signifies a stag;

“ all parts. Besides, Sicily, where

" the scene of this Eclogue feems “ Saucius at quadrupes nota inter « to have been laid, was not very "! tecta refugit,"

“ far distant from Africa. It might " therefore be feigned poëtically

, 27. Poenos leones. ] Carthage " that the groans of an afflicted was a famous city of Africa. He “ family were heard even to Africa." therefore fays Carthaginian lions, - This seems very extravagant; and for African.' Africa abounds with Virgil does not speak of the groans Tions and other wild beasts. Theo- of the afflicted family ; but only critus represents the lions lamenting says the mountains' and 'woods ecDaphnis in the woods ; and joins choed the lamentations of the lions. other wild beasts with them, He does not give the least hint, that

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