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sini The that the Poet meant Rome by Ama“ he says, that whilst he was a flave

look upon me, and Respexit tamen, et longo post tempore venit. Amaryllis poléfes me, Galatea Poftquam nos Amaryllis habet, Galatea reliquit

. bas left me. For I must con- Namque, fatebor enim, dum me Galatea tenebat, fess, that wbi!A Galatca beld Nec fpes libertatis erat, nec cura peculi. me, I bad neizber bope of liberty, wor care of gaima

NO TE S. under inextricable dificulties in ex- following reasons. 1. As the Poet plaining their author ; which might has twice mentioned Rome expressa the Poet's characters are general, Éclogue, what could induce him to and not intended to be personal, call it sometimes Rome and some

31. Poftquam nos Amaryllis, &c.] ţimes Amaryllis? 2. He distinguishes

syllis, and Mantua by Galatea. to Galatea, he had no profit from Politian pretends that Amaryllis was the cheefes which he made fer the the secret name for Rome. But, unhappy city. 3. If we admit the as La Cerda juftly observes, this allegory, that verse Mirabar quid contradicts itself: for if it had been moesta deos, &c. is inextricable so, the Poet had offended against 4. Servius has laid it down as a rule, religion, by pronouncing the name, in the life of Virgil, that we are which it was unlawful to reveal, not to understand any thing in the Besides, no ancient author whatsoever Bucolicks figuratively, that is, aly has ventured to inform us what this

legorically. secret name was. La Cerda seems

Galatea reliquit.] Many of the to incline to the opinion of Fabius Commentators will have this to be Piątor and Nannius, who tell us, what they call ap Euphemismus, or that the Argeus campus, which is in- civil way of expressing what would closed by the seven hills, was ren otherwise seem offensive. They dered uninhabitáble by the inunda- affirm that Galatea did not forsake tions of the Tiber ; but that, on Tityrus, but Tityrus Galatca. This offering facrifices to Vertumnus, the is still upon a fupposition that Galawaters returned into their channel.

tea is Mantua : but as we reject that Hence Rome was called Amaryllis interpretation, the Euphemismus befrom the gutters, by which the wa

comes unworthy of our confideraters were carried off, ama.pus figni- tion. fying a gutter. But La Cerda him 33. Peçuli.] It is used for per self thinks this may possibly be too culii. Peculium is commonly unfar fetched, and that the Poet may derstood to signify the private stock, intend no more than to call Rome which a slave iş permitted to enjoy, by the name of a fictitious fhep- independent of his master. Plauherders. Ruaeus looks upon these tus, in his Calina, uses it to express opinions as trifes, and juftly rejects the separate purse of a wife, made the allegorical interpretation for the up without the husband's knowledge


Quamvis multa meis exiret victima feptis, . Thougb many a vi&im wens

from my folds,


16 saw.”

" Nam peculi probam nihil habere Have been devoted thus to ruft and addecet

gain, * Clam virum; et quod habet, par- Be capable of high and gen'rous tum ei haud commode'ft,

thoughts? « Quin viro aut fubtrahat, aut ftu

Lord Roscommon. Sve na

pro invenerit. Cicero , uses it for the property of a consideration in the fame sense.

Dryden translates the passage under Have, in his Paradoxa; « An eo* rum servitus dubia est, qui cupi

" I sought not freedom, nor ass ditate peculii nullam conditionem 2. pir'd to gain."

recufant duriffimae fervitutis ?" Many other passages are quoted by And Dr Trapp, the Commentators, to thew, that peculium means the stock of a flave;

“ No hope of freedom or of gain I whence they infer, that Virgil uses it in this place, to express that Tityrus was in a state of servitude. It

Peculium, no doubt, as well as must be confessed, that the word is most frequently used in this sense; pecunia is derived from pecus, bebut there want not instances to prove tle, before the invention of money;

niade that it also signifies the property of and the most ancient coin had cattle a freeman, or, as I understand it in

impressed on it. « Igitur, says the passage now before us, Gain.

« Varro, eft fcientia pecoris parandi Petronius Arbiter, in his eighth 6 ac pascendi, ut fructus quam chapter, uses it in a ludicrous sense, « poffint maximi capiantur ex ea, to express what every man may cer

" a quibus ipfa pecunia nominata tainly call his own. Horace, in his

o eftnam omnis pecuniae pecus Art of Poetry, has the very words 166 fundamentum.

Columella tells cura peculi, in the same sense, that I

us expressly that both words are dehave given them here;

rived from pecus ; " Nam in rusti“, -At haec animos aerugo et cura catione vel antiquiffima eft ratio peculi

to pascendi, eademque quaestuofisi"Quum femel imbuerit, speramus cima; propter quod nomina quocarmina fingit

" que et pecuniae et peculii tracta vi. “ Posle linenda cedro, et laevi fer

66 dentur a pecore. “ vanda cupreffo ?"

34. Séptis.} Servius tells us,

that septa fignified those places in Can fouls, who by their parents from tħe Campus Martius, which were their birth,

fenced in, for the people to give

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and many fat cheese was Pinguis et ingratae premeretur caseus urbi,
prefed for the unbappy city, :

NOTE S. their votes ; and that because these But this pointing is followed in very Septa resemble sheep-folds, or ovilia, few editions. Burman indeed Teems the words are often put one for ano to approve of it on the authority of ther. Thus in this passage, feptis is Servius and Fabricius, but he has used for ovilibus; and on the con- preserved the common pointing. trary in Lucan,

Ingratae urbi.] Mantuas but “ - Et miserae maculayit cvilia fome doubt may arise, why. Man66 Romae.”

tua is called ingrata, and what is

meant by that epithet. It is comAnd Juvenal,

monly used to signify either unplea:

Jing or ungrateful. In the former Antiquo quae proxima surgit sense we find it in the second 66 ovili.”

Aeneid :

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But I think it more probable, that “ Sed quid ego haec autem nequic-
these inclosures in the Campus Mar quam ingrata revolvo :"
tius took their name from the sheep-
folds; the founders of Rome having where Servius interprets it, nec vo-
been shepherds. This is certain, bis placitura, nec mihi gratiam con-
that it was no poetical liberty taken ciliantia. In the latter sense it seems :
by Virgil to call the folds fepta ; to be used in the tenth Aeneid;
since that word is used by Varro, in
his firft book, “ Num de septis, Respicit ignarus rerum, ingratus-
quae tutandi caufa fundi, aut


falutis." “ partis fiant, dicam." Here it is very plain, that Varro uses the But ingratus signifies also unhappy, word for what we call fences. He fad, or melancholy; as in the fixth says there are four sorts of septa, or Aeneid: fences: the first he describes to be a quick hedge; the second a dead « Flebant, et cineri ingrato suprehedge; the third a ditch and bank; " ma ferebant;" and the fourth a wall.

35. Pinguis. Servius thinks it where Servius interprets it, Irifti; better to make pinguisi agree with ut gratum laetum aliquid dicimus

. victima than with cafeus, so that Thus also in the fifth Book of Luthese lines fhould be pointed thus : cretius, we find

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& Quamvis multa meis exiret vic

a tima feptis
Pinguis, et ingratae premeretur

« cafeus urbi.".

“ At nisi purgatum 'ft pectus, quae

“ proelia nobis, " Atque pericula tunc ingratis in

« finuandum;

Nonunquam gravis aere domum mihi dextra redibat. yet my right hand never returned Mel. Mirabar, quid moesta Deos, Amarylli, bome full of money.

MEL. I wondered, Amar vocares ;

37 ryllis, what made

you forruz.

ful, and invoke obe Gods ; NOT E S.

which Creech interprets, At nisi Amarylli.). The allegorical interanimi noftri fint purgati, quot tumul- preters are at such a loss to make tibus agitaremur, quae pericula nos sense of this verse, that they are miferos manerent. Thus also Horace, obliged to find an error in it,

and that we ought, instead of " Ingrato misera vita ducenda est," Amarylli to read Galatea.

cordingly we

we find Galatea inwhich Desprez interprets Vita misera truded into some editions. La Cerda infortunato protrahenda eft tibi

. I has not altered the text here, though believe it is in this last fense, that we he seems. very well inclined to it. are to understand the paffage before “ Some, says he, read Galatea, us. We do not see any reason, why" thinking the sense would otherVirgil should call. Mantua ungrate

“ wife be obscure, and product ful. Tityrus carried his cattle and " manuscripts in confirmation of cheese thither to sell, and if he did " that reading. They do not want not bring his money home with " reason for this emendation : for him, it was his own fault to spend "Meliboeus, as appears from the it. Nor is there any evident reason, " whole course of this Eclogue, why he should call it unpleasing, un “ pretends to know nothing about lefs, as Burman interprets it, because “ Augustus or Rome; nay Tityit was filled with soldiers. But there rus informs him of them. Thereappears an, evident reason, why he 5 fore how should he, who knew should call it unhappy; for it was so « nothing of Rome, hear of her in it's situation, suffering on account complaints? how should he fee of it's nearness to Cremona, as the “ her apples? bow Thould be hear Poet himself intimates in the ninth “ the complaints of the trees and

56 fountains, there? All these make

" against Amaryllis ; but plead “ Mantua,.vae miferae nimium vi “ strongly for Galatea, that is, for “ cina Cremonae."

“ Mantua, whose complaints a

" Mantuan shepherd may well be 37. Mirabar, &c.] Meliboeus “ supposed to know. And indeed feems by this last discourse of Tity " he speaks as about something prerus, to have found out the amour “ fent, and of the country about between him and Amaryllis, with “ Mantua, which he has before his which he was not acquainted before ; eyes, when he says, haec arbusta and therefore wondered whose ab “ vocabant te. Besides, Tityrus hinc sence it was that Amaryllis la

aberat makes for Mantua, not mented.

66 for Rome: for no body can be

Eclogue ;

56 said

and for wbom you fuffered your Cui pendere fua patereris in arbore poma. apples to bang

so long upon Iber

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66 far.

NOTES: “ said to be absent from a place.“ such engagements, except in me“ where he never was.?? 'It is « taphor. Thus we fee in the text; plain, that this learned Commenta « his Amaryllis and Galatea arc tor was led into all this perplexity “changed at once into two cities: merely by his being blinded with ". Besides the recital of a paflion Allegory. But Catroú goes more “ would be out of place in a Poem roundly to work, and boldly restores, "intended to praise and thank Cae as he calls it, Galatea to the text.

It would be an idle distracs6 The reader will be surprised, <tion bardly tolerable to the mind, «6 says he, to find Galatea here in “ and a disagreeable excursioni

. 6 ftead of Amaryllis. I confess “Whereas, by reading Galatea, of that most of the modern editions " and fuppofing through the whole « have Amarylli-; but I have not “. Eclogue a perpetual metaphor, « substituted Galatea 'without au 56 where under the names of Amauthority. Several manuscripts, as ryllis and Galatea” are always « La Cerda affirms, and several "-meant Rome and Mantua, the " ancient editions, read Galatea in « whole work becomes uniform, * stead of Amaryllis. Besides, the s and attains it's end, without giv“ edition printed at the Louvre, " ing any change to the mind." « from manufcripts, has restored By the confeffion of these allegorical • Galatea in the text. Hereby all interpreters themselves, their whole " the difficulties vanish, and all the interpretation falls to the ground, “ obscurity clears up. If we réé unless we read Galatea for Aniaryl“ tain Amarylli

, and mean thereby lis: but there does not seem suffi "the city of Rome, would it be cient authority for that reading; "probable, that Meliboeus should which seems to have been utterly " know what passed there, he who unknown to Servius, Pierius, Phi" perhaps had never stirred out of largyrius, and other most celebrated " his own village? Could Virgil's Commentators; and to have been “ father have caused so much grief invented only to support the imagia " there by his absence ?. He was 'å nation, that Amaryllis was Rome, se man of no diftinction, who went and Galatea was Mantua. We je to iseek credit at Rome, and was muft therefore subscribe to the opi

€ not regarded there,' at least not nion of the learned Ruaeus, who $6 with any inquietude. Nor is it judicioufy obferves, that the sense sui more natural to imagine, that a is very plain, if we do not confound SA person is here meant for whom ourselves with allegory:

gris o Tity* Tityrus, that old man with a 6 rus, says he, has cast off* Galawhite beard had an inclination. 6 tea, loves Amaryllis," and goes SÓ He was not of an age to-form " to Rome. Amaryllis being left

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