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Hic inter densas cotylos miodo námque gemellos, Juft now did she bring forto

swins bere among tbe ibick bazles,


And in the seventh;

" Nam memini Hefiones vifentem

regna sororis

utraque tellus

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Protinus, hinc fuscis , tristis dea « Laomedontiadem Priamum Sala. 6 tollitur alis

“ mina petentem, • Audacis Rutuli ad muros.” “ Protinus Arcadiae gelidos invisere


“ fines.” And

I shall now consider some passages, Mos erat Hesperio in Latio, quein which seem most naturally to be unprotinus urbes

derstood in the sense which Nonius « Albanae coluere facrum.” Marcellus gives to the passage under

consideration. In the third Aeneid Here Servius interprets it jugiter, we find, deinde ; and says it is now an adverb of time. He gives the same fenfe to “ Haec loca vi quondam, et vasta

< convulsa ruina, trajecto missa lacerto “ Tantum aevi longinqua valet “ Protinus hasta fugit,"

mutare vetustas,

“ Diffiluiffe ferunt, cum protinus in the tenth.

“ Una foret.” In the fame book we find “ Protinus Antaeum et Lycam, pri Here Servius interprets protinus, ma agmina Turni

continuo ; and says it is an adverb of Persequitur.” And,

of place. Ruaeus also interprets it

fine intermissione ; Virgil is here “ Haec ubi dicta dedit, caelo fe speaking of the supposed difruption “protinus alto

of Sicily from the continent of Italy, Mifit,” in the sense already given. to which it is said to have been for

merly joined :' cum protinus utraque Lastly in the eleventh

tellus una foret, that is, when both

lands were absolutely one. ** Protinus Orsilochum et Buten, In the fixth,

“ duo maxima Teucrum Corpora: fed Buten adverfo cuf

Quin protinus omnia “pide fixit.”

Perlegerent oculis, In the eighth Aeneid, Servius in- can hardly be understood in any terprets protinus, at one and the fame other sense. Ruacus interprets it, time, or on the way:

* At vero Trojani ulterius perA4

6 lustrassent

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que tulisset.?

and left olas! the bope of my Spem gregis, ah! silice in nuda connixa reliquit. 15 Mock upon tbe naked Pore,

aj 96. NOT E S. « lustrassent oculis omnia ;” and great part of the night in play '; and Dr Trapp translates thiş passage, adds, Now all the work « Aequasset noēti ludum, in lucem

Felix, fi protinus illum « Throughout with curious eyes they would have trac’d."

Here Servius says, protenus is put In the following paffage in the for porro tenus or continuo, which is seventh,

peculiar to Virgil. Ruaeus also in« Tartaream intendit: vocem, quá would be better to translate this

terprets it cantinyo. But surely it protinus omne « Contremuit nemus,

passage, happy, had, be but made his play absolutely or entirely equal to

the night, and continued it till protinus may be understood to meán either valde, longe, or ftatim ; Ru


Having thus considered the word aeus interprets it in the latter fense.

in all the places where Virgil has Dr Trapp translates it suddenly. I

made use of it, I can by no means Thould rather interpret it; "the aflent to Servius and his followers, of whole forest trembled greatly, or 6 throughout ;” or emphatically,

who interpret it porro tenus or conall the whole foref trembled.

tinuo, which Servius himself says is In the ninth Aeneid, Turnus peculiar to Virgil

. And as there is boasting of his fuperiority over the

not any one paffage, where it may Trojans, says,

not be rendered otherwise, we may

justly reject this fingular interpretaAddant se protinus omnes

tion. I rather incline to the opi« Etrufci focios,"

nion of Nonius Marcellus, that it

is in this place an emphatical adThat is, emphatically, let every man verb, and means valde or omnino, in of the Tuscans add himself to the num- which fense: it may well bertunderber. Servius indeed tells us, that stood in many passages of our Poet. some interpret praținus, licet in this 13. Duco.] La Cerda would have us pláče. Ruaeus interprets it patin: understand duco in this place to mean but the sense, which I have here carrying on the lhoulders. To congiven it, seems the most natural. firm this interpretation, he quotes There remains, I think, but one pal- several authors, who mention the Fagė more to be considered. It is also hepherd's taking up the façepon his in the ninth book ; where the Poet is shoulders. But all, or most of speaking of the numbers slain by Eu- them, are Christians, and allude to ryalus and Nifus, Among these he the parable of the Good Shepherd in mentions Sarranus, who had spent the Gofpel; which only thews the



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* Cow With

: .. Saepe malum hoc nobis, fi mens non laeva fuiffet, remember, sbat ebe.dakoblast

ed from

beaven often foretold me De caelo tactas memini praedicere quercus : bis calamity; only my mind Saepe sinistra cava praedixit ab ilice cornix. was diftra&ted. Ofren did obe

finiffrous crow foretel ic from Sed tamen, ifte Deus qui liț, da, Tityre, nobis,

bollow bolm-oak. But tell me, Tit. Urbem, quam dicunt Romam, Mesiboee, Tityrus, who thin God is. i putavị

Tit. I foolishly bought abe Stultus huic noftrae fimilem, quo faepe solemus. be like this of ours, Meliber

, a ego Paftores ovium teneros depellere foetus.

to which we pepberds often use Sic canibụs catulos similes, fic matribys hoedos

to drive tbe sender offspring of

our sheep. Tbus I knew whelps

were like dogs, and kids like goats :

NOT E.S. frequency of this custom. How- 1533, printed by Rob. Stephens, and ever not even one of these uses duca in some other printed editions. Perto’express carrying on the shoulders. haps it was ltuck in here by some It certainly signifies to lead or draw. transcriber, who took it from the In the firft sense it is used in the fe- ninth Eclogue, where we read, cond Georgick, ver. 395. and in

" Ante finistra cava praedixit ab the latter sense in many places.

5 ilice cornix." Rudeus: renders it trahe. Dryden translates it,

19. Qui.] Some read quis. * And this you see I scarcely drag

20. Urbem quam dicunt, &c.] Tin tyrus, instead of answering directly

who the deity is, deviates, with a And Dr Trapp,

paftoral simplicity, into a description

of Rome, "And this, dear Tityrus, I scarce

21. Huic noftrae.] Mantua, near

which Virgil was born. Can drag along. "

23. Sic canibus, &c.] 15. Connixa.] Servius says it is " means, that Rome differs from used for enixa, only to avoid an hi “ other cities, not only in magniatus. La Cerda will have it to ex tude, but also in kind, being, as press a difficult delivery.; for which I “it were, another world, or a fort do not find sufficient authority.

" of heaven in which he saw the 16. Laeva.] Servius interprets it “ god Caefar. For in comparing a Julta, contraria. See the note on whelp to a dog, or a kid to a ver7. of the fourth Georgick.

goat, we only express the diffe2:28. Saepe finiftra, &c.] This "rence of magnitude, not of kind. verfc. is of doubtful authority, not “ But, when we say a lion is bigger being to be found in the most an " than a dog, we express the difcient manuscripts. Pietius found it “ference of kind as well as of magadded to some copies in another hand. “nitude, as the Poet does now in It istomitted in the printed copy of " speaking of Rome. I thought the Medicean, in the Milan edition " before, says he, that Rome was of 1481, in the Paris edition of " to be compared with other cities,


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“ just

that I afled to compare great Noram: fic parvis componere magna folebath.
Tbings with small. Burebis
bas lifted up ber bead among

Verum haec tantum alias inter caput extulit urbes, 25 orber cities, as mueb as cypreljes Quantum lenta solent inter viburna cupreffi. do among ibe bending 'wayfar.

Mel. Et quae tanta fuit Romam tibi causa ing -trees. MEL. Wbat great conje bad

videndi? you to go to fee Rome?

Tit. Libertas; quae sera tamen respexit inertem; TIT. Liberty, wbicb, bough I was Morbfal, looked upon me at lalt;


just as a kid is to be compared Et quae.] Some read Ecquae. « with it's dam: for though it was 28. Libertas.] The Commen

greater, yet I took it to be only tators generally understand Tityrus

a city: but now I find, that it to have been a flave; because he 56 differs also in kind : for it is a makes mention here of his being « mansion oi deities. That this is grown old before he obtained his li“ his meaning, is plain from berty. But it is very plain that Vir

gil does not represent him in any 66 Quantum lenta solent inter vi- such condition ; for he is possessed os burna cupresli,

of flocks and herds; and has a farm

of his own; tua rura manebunt. " For the wayfaring-tree is a low The Poet therefore must mean by " fhrub; but the cypress is a tall, Liberty, either the restitution of the as and stately tree.” SERVIUS. Jands of Tityrus, or his releasement -- 26. Lenta - viburna.] The from the bondage of his passion for Viburnum or IVayfaring-tree is a Galatea. It seems to be the latter; thrub with bending, tough branches, because we are told he had no hopes which are therefore much used in of liberty, so long as Galatea rebinding faggots. The name is de- tained possession of him. It will be rived a viendo, which fignifies to objected perhaps, that Tityrus could bind. The ancient writers feem to have no occasion to go to Rome, to have called any fhrub, that was fit obtain a dismission from his affection for this purpose, viburnum : but the to a mistress ; and therefore this canmore modern authors have restrained not be the liberty here mentioned. that name to express only our Way- But to this it may be answered, that faring-tree.

his having obtained his liberty, by --27. Et quae tanta, &c.] Tityrus shaking off the yoke of Galahaving mentioned Rome, Meliboeus tea, was the cause of his going to immediately asks him what was the Rome: for during his passion for occafion of his going thither : to her, he neglected his affairs,

and which he answers, that it was Li- lived expensively, fending great berty, which he did not enjoy till he quantities of cattle and cheese to was grown old; when Galatea for- market, and yet not being the richer sook him, and he gave himself up for it.. to Amaryllis

29. Can.

Candidior poftquam tondenti barba cadebat :

afeer my beard fèn' wbite from.

sbe barber :


29. Candidior poftquam, &c.] have the candidior barba 'to mean The Commentators, who generally the first down on the chin. Besides, affirm that Virgil describes him- this will make Tityrus too young felf under the name of Tityrus, are to represent a person of Virgil's age. much confounded with this mention La Cerda is of opinion, that as Virof his beard being grey, Virgil be- gil had represented himself under ing but - twenty-eight years old, the character of a slave, he was when he wrote this Eclogue. Ser- obliged to suppose himself old too; vius questions, whether it may not because it was not usual to enfrana be a changing of the person, putting chise their Naves,' till they were old. an old peasant in this place instead of I have thewo already, that Tityrus Virgil ; but he does not seem per- is not represented as a flave: therefectly satisfied with this solution, and fore I need not give any answer to rather thinks, that the pointing the latter part of the argument; hould be altered, reading the paff- though it would be easy to produce age thus ;

many instances of Naves being set at

liberty before they were old. RuLibertás, quae fera tamen refpexit aeus thinks, that the allegory is not inertem

every where observed, and concludes Candidior; poftquam tondenti bar- with Probus, that the Poet only ba cadebat.

takes the same liberty in represent

ing himself as an old man, that he Thus candidior does not agree with does in making himself a shepherd, barba, but with libertas; and the or in assuming the feigned name of fense, such as it is, will be Liberty, Tityrus. Catrou has found out a which, though I was slothful, looked new solution of these difficulties. more favourably at last, after my He has discovered that Virgil's fabeard fell from the barber. But then ther was yet alive, and tells us it the mention of the beard -at all is was he that obtained the reftitution superfluous, unless we fuppose that of his lands, and therefore is repréthey did not use the barber till they sented with propriety as an old man; were near thirty years old, which is though I must confess, that I can not probable. Besides, if we should hardly be persuaded to believe, that comply with Servius here in altering fo decent a writer as Virgil, would the pointing, we shall never be able have made his father call himself to prove Tityrus to be a young man, fool, as he does in two or three places since he is twice called expressly se- of this Eclogue. To conclude, the rex, which cannot be ftrained to Commentators seem to think it nefignify any thing but an old man. ceffary, that fome one person should The same objection will be in force be represented under the name of againlt Pomponius' also, who will Tityrus, and thereby lay themselves


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