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riel, in his treatise of holiness, quotes it out of the Book of the Creation, which was written by Rab. Abraham, an ancient cabalist, who the Jews say was the patriarch Abraham himself.

“ The Spirit,” saith he, meaning the most high God,“ bringeth forth “ the Word and the Voice; and these three are one “ God.” Thus also it is frequently used in the Chaldee paraphrase as eminently appropriated to a divine Person: so in Isa. xlv. 17. instead of, Israel shall be saved in the Lord, they read it, by the Word of the Lord; and Jerem. i. 8. instead of, I am with thee, they read, because my Word is with thee; and Gen. xv. 1. instead of, I am thy shield, they read, my Word is thy shield: and so in sundry other places. And, which is very observable, Psalm cx. 1. instead of, The Lord said unto my Lord, they read, The Lord said unto his Word; which words our Saviour applies to himself, Matt. xxii. 44. as being himself that eternal Word or Aéyos there mentioned. And in the same sense also it was very anciently used in the writings of the Gentile philosophy. Thus Zeno, as Tertullian tells us a, speaks of a Móyos by which the world was made, and which he calls Fate, and God, and the Soul of Jupiter. And the ancient Orpheus, as he is quoted by Clemens Alexandrinus b, exhorts men "to behold and contem

plate the divine Word, who is the immortal King “ of heaven." And Plato tells us, that the motions of the stars were disposed and ordered by the Word.

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Tertull. Apologet. cap. 21. • Stromat. I. v. p. 607. Els de Pam. Hunc (i. e. Λόγον) Zeno de- Λόγον θείον βλέψας, τούτω προσterminat factitatorem, qui cuncta έδρευε, Ευθύνων κραδίης νοερόν κύτος" in dispositione formaverit: eun- ευδ' επίβαινε 'Ατραπιτου, μούνον δ dem et Fatum vocari, et Deum, εσόρα κόσμoιο άνακτα 'Αθάνατον. et Animum Jovis.


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By which it is plain that this phrase was used as appropriate to a divine Person, both by Jews and Gentiles, long before the writing of the New Testament. And that the New Testament derived it from their writings is apparent; for that it attributes to Christ the same titles and characters which they were wont to attribute to the Abyos. Thus, as the New Testament calls Christ the Messias, the Word, so the Chaldee paraphrase expressly tells us that Messias is called the Word of God, Oseæ, cap. vii. Thus as St. Paul calls him the King immortal, so Orpheus, in the aforenamed place, calls him άνακτα αθάνατον, the King immortal. And whereas Christ is said to be

. the image of God, 2 Cor. iv. 4. to be the shining forth of his glory, and the express character of his person, Heb. i. 3. Philo calls him xapartừp Occid, the okià and cikcòn con e; that is, “ the character of God, " and the shadow and image of God:” and Plotin, " that it is a light streaming forth from God, even “ as brightness doth from the sun f.” And as St. John, in the first verse of this chapter, tells us, That the Word was from the beginning with God, and that it was God; so Philo tells us, that “by prerogative “ of eldership he abideth with the Father ;” and Zeno, in the aforenamed place, " that he is God;” and Plotin & tells us, " That being the word of God and “ the image of God, he is inseparably conjoined with “ him.” And whereas Christ tells us, that he is the light of the world, John viii. 12. the manna which cometh down from heaven, and the bread of life, John vi. 33, 35. the same Philo styles him “the

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d Lib. i. de Agricultura, p. 169. edit. Genev. 1613.

· Leg. Alleg. I. ii. p. 6o.

'Enn. 5. 1. i. c. 6.
& Ibid.

“-word, the light b, the manna,” the aptos and tpooing nu edwkev ó @eds tñ proxiña ; that is, “the bread and food “ which God hath given to the soul.” And whereas it is said, that the Father is in Christ, that he dwells and abides in him, John xiv. 10. the same author says, Πατρός δε οίκος ο Λόγος, ενώ διαιτάται 1; that is, the

á “ Word is the house of the Father, in whom he “ dwells." Whereas Christ is said to have a name, Phil. ii. 9. and to be advanced above all principalities and powers, Eph. i. 21. Philo tells us that this divine Word is υπεράνω παντός του κόσμου, και πρεσβύτατος Tõv őoa yeyovem; that is, “ above all worlds, and the “ most ancient of all things that are.” Whereas Christ is said to be the High Priest over the house of God, Heb. x. 21. Philo tells us that “the world « is the temple of God,” εν ώ και αρχιερεύς ο πρωτόγονος auto delos Abyos "; that is,“ in which the first-born di“ vine Word is the High Priest.” Whereas Christ is said to be the Son of God, and the first-born of every creature ; Plato calls him, “ the begotten Son “ of the Good °;" Plotin, “ the Son of God P;” and Philo, “ the first-begotten Son and Word of God 9.” Again, whereas God is said to have created the world by Christ, Heb. i. 2. and to have committed the government of it to him; Philo calls the beños Móyos, the ο πηδαλιούχος και κυβερνήτης του παντός 1; that is, « the

governor of all things,” and the inapxos Occīs, “the Viceroy of God;” and also όργανον Θεού δι' ου ο κόσμος



» Pbilo de Opif. Mundi, p. 4, 5.

Leg. Alleg. p. 71.
" De Somniis, p. 463.
• De Repub. I. vi.
p Enn. 5. I. viii. c. 12.
9 De Somn. p. 463.
r De Cherub.

i Quod det. pot. ins. sol. p. 137

k Leg. Alleg. 1. ii. p. 70. et 71.

| De Migrat. Abrah. p. 304. VOL. VI.

s De Somn. p. 466. K

p. 88.

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KATEGKEVÉO Ont; that is,“the instrument of God by whom “ he made the world.” As in Christ the fulness of the Godhead is said to dwell, Coloss. ii. 9. so Plotin tells us of the Nows, or óyos, “that it is filled with “ God u.” As Christ is called the great Shepherd of our souls, 1 Pet. ïi. 25. so Philo tells us, that “God, “ who is King and Pastor of the world, hath appoint“ed the Word his first-begotten Son,” TÌN TIMÉRELAV της Ιεράς αγέλης, ολά τι μεγάλου βασιλέως ύπαρχος διαδέξεobass,“ to undertake the care of his sacred flock, as his

own viceroy and substitute:” and accordingly in the same place he makes the Word to be that Angel whom God had promised to send before the camp of Israel, to conduct them through the wilderness. In short, as the angels are said to be subject unto Christ, 1 Pet. iii. 22. and as Christ is said to be the Angel or Messenger of God, John ix. 4. so Philo calls the most ancient Word the ó ápxáyyedos y; that is, “the prince “ of the angels;" and the tòy ayyerov Occü?,“ the angel “ or messenger of God.” And, to name no more, as Christ is called the Mediator of the new covenant, Heb. xii. 24. and the Intercessor between God and man, Heb. vii. 25. and the propitiation and atonement; so saith Philo, (which is highly worthy of our observation,) the Word ixéons mév éOTI , &c. “is the in“ tercessor for mortals with the immortal God," and also “ the ambassador of that great King to his sub

jects; which office,” saith he, "he willingly under“ took, saying, I will stand in the middle between “ the Lord and you, as being neither unborn as God, 6 the begin

i Lib. Cherub. p. 100.

p. 397. u Ennead. 5. 1. iji. c. 12. z De Somn. p. 466. * De Agricult. p. 152.

a Quæst. Rer. Divin. Hær. p. y Quæst. Rerum Divin. Hær. 397.

“ nor born as you; but being a medium between “ those two extremes, I will be a pledge for both; “ for his creatures, that they shall not utterly apo“ statize from him; for God, that he will not be “ wanting in his fatherly care towards them.” And in another place he tells us, that the beños Abyos is της αρεσκείας κεφαλή και τέλος b; that is,

ning and the end of God's good-will to the world,” which is all one with propitiation.

And these authorities of Philo I have the rather insisted upon, because he being a Jew, and a Platonic philosopher, must needs understand the theology of Jews and Gentiles; and living about the time of our Saviour, he must be supposed to have written in terms that were then in use, and were very well understood both by Jews and Gentiles : and if so, then it must necessarily follow, that this phrase, the Word, so common in that author, was very commonly used, both by Jews and Gentiles, in our Saviour's time, and consequently that it was derived from them, and so appropriated to our Saviour by the inspired writers of the New Testament. And indeed it is not to be imagined how those inspired writers should ever have so exactly agreed with the Jews and Gentiles in the titles and characters of the eternal Word, had not either they themselves, or the Spirit of God, which dictated to them, purposely derived it from them.

2. That the New Testament, giving no distinct explication of this phrase, the Word, it is most safe and reasonable to fetch the sense of it from that ancient theology whence it was derived. I do not

De Somniis, p. 447.

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