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36. and 19. 31. Heb. 10. 2. and 10. 34. they certainly rejected his authority, and retained the translation of the Bishops' Bible.

The Harmony, or table of parallel statements made by the three first Evangelists, accompanies the inner margin of the original Greek, and is taken, after some few corrections, from the edition of Vater, published at Halle in the year 1824.

The parallel passages noted in the margin of the English Version, together with the notes and translations below, are the original additions made by the translators, but corrected and enlarged by Dr. Blayney in the year 1769. Collections of this nature will appear to be either too copious or too limited, and to contain a clear or doubtful relation to the point at issue, according to the wants or attainments of different readers. It is hoped however that the marginal references of Dr. Blayney, though not free from exceptions, will be found better suited for general purposes than most other collections of the kind.

The Concordance added to the second volume is a reduced form of the Concordance of Schmidt, omitting proper names, which require no comparison, and all such common words as, being of constant occurrence, would have added very greatly to the bulk of the work, without contributing in the same degree to its value. In other simple words also of frequent occurrence, whose secondary meanings are sometimes connected with points of doctrine, the instances which are to be found in the Epistles are given at full length, while those occurring in the Gospels are curtailed.

In aid however of the original text, as published by the earlier editors, various readings are placed at the foot of each page, which may be considered, upon the whole, as embodying all that has hitherto been accomplished in that branch of criticism. They b

are taken from the text and inner margin of Griesbach, and are marked by the letters A, B, C, and D, to denote the different degrees of value, as to genuineness, which they possess, according to his judgment, in comparison with the received text. 1A accordingly denotes a reading which, owing to the great preponderance of testimony in its favour, ought to be admitted into the text: B, one which has a preponderance in its favour, but not so decided as to leave no doubt respecting it: C, one where the testimony is equally balanced, or very nearly so: D, one where the new reading is worth consideration, but the testimony preponderates in favour of the received text. Thus John 5. 16. kai ἐζήτουν αὐτὸν ἀποκτεῖναι om. A. denotes that these words ought to be omitted from the text. John 8. 39. ἀβραάμ ἐστε τὰ Β. denotes that ἐστε has more evidence in its favour than the received reading Te, but not so much as to require its admission into the text. The reader of Griesbach will be aware that in this notation cases are combined under one head, which Griesbach has distinguished by separate tokens. But the notation still exhibits, and in a more simple form, the results adopted by that well-known scholar; and, as great care has been taken in the application of it, the collection is believed to be accurate. The edition of Griesbach employed in making it, was that of London, 1809, 1810; and it was compared, whenever a comparison seemed requisite, with a Leipsic edition of the year 1825.

In inserting these various readings, arranged and graduated according to the judgment of Griesbach, it is not meant that his decision is always right, or

1 In the words of Griesbach; A, in textum a nobis sunt admissa, et in locum lectionis vulgo receptæ surrogata. B, probabilis omissio (vel additio, vel suffectio) neque tamen adeo certa, ut nullus dubitationi locus supersit. C, lectio suppar aut æqualis, immo forsitan præferenda receptæ lectioni. D, lectio non spernenda quidem, et ulteriore examine digna, at receptæ tamen inferior. Proleg. p. 90.

in any instance final. The critical reader is well aware that objections have been taken, not only against his conclusions in individual cases of various readings, but also against the assignment of given MSS. to their respective classes m, and even against the principle on which his threefold classification of MSS. is constructed. Nevertheless, sacred criticism. has been greatly indebted to the labours of Griesbach"; and the results of such investigations, so important to the lover of scriptural truth, are more fully and correctly exhibited in his edition than in any other hitherto published. In cases indeed of private meditation, or common pastoral instruction, various readings may safely be overlooked; but in contending with an adversary, no theologian will act either wisely or justly, who appeals to words so doubtful in their genuineness, as in Griesbach's judgment to deserve unqualified exclusion from the text. At the least, therefore, a reading marked with the letter A should be compared with the received text, before the passage is cited by way of proof in any case of controversy. And let it not be supposed that any danger is incurred by acknowledging the necessity for this precaution. There are very few cases of this description connected with any question

m Laurence, Remarks on Griesb. p. 72. Nolan, Integ. of the Greek Vulg. Scholz. Proleg. p. 2. and note on 1 Tim. 3. 16. C. F. Matthaei Nov. Test. p. 702.

n "He [Griesbach] has shewn himself in this, as well as in every other respect, to be the most consummate critic that ever undertook an edition of the Greek Testament." Marsh's Michaelis, vol. ii. p. 628.

o "Divinæ Providentiæ gratiæ sunt agendæ, quæ sacris literis invigilavit, ne corruptiones graviores nisi pauca per tot Codices propagarentur." Griesb. Proleg. p. 46. Bentley's Philel. Lips. The only readings of great importance marked A are the following; Matt. 6. 13. Acts 20. 28. and 1 John 5. 7. But there are some others also, though of minor importance, which a wise theologian will abstain from urging by way of proof in certain cases: for instance, I Cor. 7. 5. as authority for fasting; Eph. 3. 9. for Christ's creation of the world; Eph. 5.9. for the fruits of the Spirit.

of importance; and the conclusion arising from the whole examination of various readings, instead of leaving a painful impression upon the mind, is calculated to create a strong sense of security and thankfulness.

These then are all the external means and aids, which seem to be directly necessary for the study of the word of God. Other qualifications there are, which an editor is unable to supply, but must not fail to recommend with the utmost earnestness. They are the only additions wanting; but they are also elements, without which the mind cannot be qualified for its important task, or the sound knowledge which it may gradually be acquiring, be converted into Christian wisdom.

Ἐάν τις θέλῃ τὸ θέλημα αὐτοῦ ποιεῖν, γνώσεται περὶ τῆς διδαχῆς, πότερον ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐστιν. John 7. 17.

Εἰ οὖν ὑμεῖς πονηροὶ ὑπάρχοντες οἴδατε ἀγαθὰ δόματα διδόναι τοῖς τέκνοις ὑμῶν, πόσῳ μᾶλλον ὁ πατὴρ ὁ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ δώσει Πνεῦμα ̔́Αγιον τοῖς αἰτοῦσιν αὐτόν ; Luke 11. 13·

Τότε διήνοιξεν αὐτῶν τὸν νοῦν, τοῦ συνιέναι τὰς γραφάς. Luke 24. 45·





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