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it, pointing the reader to that where the article stands: For, in this case, few readers will have the good luck always to seek the article in the first attempt, where alone it is to be found ; yet, wherever he seeks for it under a different but likely word, he should there find a clue to direct him infallibly to what he is in quest of. None of these synonymal words ought to have any references one to the other,---neither should the article, wherefoever placed, have any references to them ; but all of them should refer to the article, as that alone answers the trouble of turning to
his obvious remark leaves me at a loss how to accourt for the gentleman's meaning in his references from Night-Mare to elf, hag, mare, incubus ---when the reference ought to be from these terms to this article, and not from this to them.“ (V. Specimen, Par. 1, 2.
Every article ought to stand in a proper place; but there may be sometimes a reason for not inserting it, or, at least not the whole of it, in the most proper place. Supposing one article would pretty naturally fall under either of two different letters in the alphabet, one of which letters would introduce a great number of articles, and the other very few, if I had not some other confideration pretty powerful and prevailing, I should be induced rather to place this supposed article under the letter which would afford me fewest of them, and that for this reason because the articles there would be few. It is also poslible, the matter of an article may occur too late to come in under one head, and yet time enough for another which falls in a following part of the alphabet : and if upon these accounts, or some other, any article which would most commodiously lie together, becomes divided between two fynonymal words, if there are no repetitions, and there be a reciprocal reference, there will no great inconvenience arise from hence.
If I have made any mistakes in what I have written, it is hoped somebody will be so kind as to rectify them; and if any thing is adyanced which does not quadrate with the diclates of reason, I fall take it as a particular favour to be set right. I conclude with hearty wilhes that the good work may be prosecuted with vigour, and upon the most correct and beautiful plan..--Hoping soon to see more concerning it in some of your future collections, I take my leave and subscribe myself,
Remarks on the above considerations are in the following pages for which reason the references a, b, c, d, are inserted, by the author of the plan and specimen, to whom Mr B's letter had been shewn. N.B. With regard to the difficulty mentioned by Mr B. in the ad par. of
bis letter, about getting this pamphlet, it is not the only complaint of this kind: and there is no remedy but to persif, as be did, till the bookleller jball please to send it; unless any Gentleman will, in such case, take the trouble of criting to the editor at St John's Gate.
3 June, 1745 Since you were pleased to give me a light of the above letter before you pube
1:jb'd it, I jend you some remarks on it. The gentleman, I dari jay, considering his generous principles, and the good sense which be bas Jouwn, will pardon you, as well as
COSMOPOLITA. Remarks on Mr B's confiderations, inferted in the foregoing pages. HE author of the plan was so far from intimating (n. 10) that
point, as it relates to astronomy, ought to be explained under the article affronomy; that, on a review, you will find he meant quite the contrary, in consistence with what he advanc'd in n. 7. For the same reason that you could almost petition for the use of capitals in the words “ god, lord, and spirit”; others would argue for the use of them in “ghoit, &?”. in short, in numberless numbers of appellaJatives, expresive of the three persons of the deity. If you fancy there is want of reverence in the use of small letters, on this occasion, you Mould rather inlift upon having the whole words in capitali, as is the
custom of many well-meaning chriftians. Undoubtedly we may, with great propriety; and sometimes, perhaps,
to better purpose. D Your observation on Synonymals is very reasonable: and you will find, on second thoughis, that I had a due regard to it, if you please to consider that, in the specimen of the article “ Night-mare” (!) where there was no particular reason, I made no reference to the synonymous term; as in “ Ephialtes": (2) but only to those, where something more (of usc to explain what was there offerd) was necessary to be observ'd under the article refer’d-to. Thus, though the reason of the names “ Incubus, &c." is given there : yet (in the consideration of those articles, in their proper place) fomething must be laid (in explication of the terms) relative hereto; that would have been improper there ; and yet may make it worth while to consult them also, even on this occafion.
Whether I am in the right, or no, will better appear from the little Articles of « Ephialtes, Elf, Incubus, Mare;" which (for our further satisfaction) I have directed to be printed after yours, in the affixed fpecimen in folio.
I have also taken the liberty, here, to present you with your own article, in a form fomewhat more agreeable to the plan which I first propos'd ; omiting (as was fit, in a supplement) what I apprehend was duly explain'd in the Cyclopædia. The comparing of the article in these two forms,when we see them in print, may be of use to us both, to form a judgment of the difference between us; and furnith others with means of making further improvements on us.
COSMOPOLITA. Mr B’s article on Cosmopolita's plan. ANEURYSM (paragr. 1]---If the blood be without the vessel (in
which case it takes the name of a spurious aneury(m) it raises
a livid tumor, which has scarce any pulsation; does not eafily yield to pressure ; and often becomes gangrenous, and proves mortal. Though it may be observ'd (what we learn from experience) that a large quantity of blood may be detain'd in the panniculus adiposus; and lie thcre, extravasated, for a confiderable time, without corrupting; provided it does not communicate with the external air. We read of a lad, of about 17 years of age, wounded, by a bullet, in a considerable artery, on the upper part of his thigh. This was follow'd with a profuse hemorrhage: but was restrain’d by a surgeon. The day after, a large tumor appear’d, with a strong pulsation ; and the blood started from the wound (at times) to the quantity of 2 or 3 ounces. Thus it continued for forty days; when it was agreed (in confultation) to lay open the part, and secure the artery a : and, upon making the incision, there was taken-out no less than 6 pounds of grumous blood. a The success of the operation was, that, in 6 weeks time,
the lad was perfectly cur’d, without any diminution of the strength, or the fize of the limb.
3 Paragr. 4] By way of Palliation, all that can be done for the patient, in the case of a true aneurysm, is---to abate the force of the blood's circulation, by a thin, slender, balsamic diet ; and repeated phlebotomy---and to keep him, as much as posfible, from all commotions, both of mind, and body.-----Some relief may alfo be hop'd-for from a prudent compression of the tumor : in duing which, it will be of considerable service to keep a moderate preffure upon the artery, above the facculus; in order to abate the impetus of the blood.
Aving maturely confidered, and being well pleased with the plan
and ipecimen of a Jupplement 10 the Cyclopaedia, published in your 3d number of the Milcellaneous Corresponder.ce; I have ventured to offer my mite of an article (See Mnemonics in the folio-leaf] in which if I have been guilty of fome deviations from the directions of the abovementioned plan ; I hope it will be considered that it was with a view of carrying the design to a greater perfection.
Note, A Letter in defence of Tytbes, from an ingenions correspondent in
answer to a letter from Rulticus against Tytbes, No 1. p. 41. is received, and will be injerted in our next.
A Pasage in the Te Deum explain'd.
SI am a clergyman of the church of E. I think it a part of my
fingle word, of that form of worship which is appointed for my daily prayers, and at the same time cannot help being desirous that every body else, could it fo be, should likewise have a true apprehension of the same.
There's a passage in that admirable hymn, the Te Deum,which is so far from being taken in its genuine sense by all, that our commentators, whom we are apt to look upon as our guides on such occasions, generally mistake it themselves; the place I mean is towards the conclusion of it;
O Lord let thy mercy lighten upon us, as our trust is in thee. Dr. Bennet, in his paragraph and annotations on the book of CommonPrayer, explains the word lighten, thus:
• To hghten is an old Englijk word, and fignifies the same as to en. lighten, or jhine upon. Accordingly God's mercy does then lighten upon
us, when it Mines upon us; that is, when it comforts and refrelhes us, * for light very commonly betokens comfort and refreshment in the holy scriptures. See Confut. of Quaker. ch. 11. p. 129, &c.'
According to the doctor the word lighten here is a verb deduc'd from the substantive light, or lux, and signifies to enlighten or fbine upon, in consequence whereof it must here be used in a figurative or metaphorical sense.
And indeed it has this sense of enlightening, illuminating, or making light, on many occasions. In Shakespear's Henry IV. the Chief Juffice fays to Falaff, Now the lord lighten thee, thou art a great fool.
Part II. Act II. Sc. III. And the same author in K. Henry VIII. Chauc.
-And who knows yet But from this lady may proceed a gem
To lighten all this ine? AA II. So also the royal Plalmist,
Lighten mine eyes that I Neep not in death. PL. XIII. 3: And in the liturgy itself, in the Nunc dimittis,
To be a light to lighten the gentiles : Where the original words of St Luke are, φώς εις αποκάλυψιν εθνών : and in the evening prayer,
Lighten our darkness we beseech thee, O Lord ; an expression taken from 2 Sam, xx11. 29. I omit several passages which might be cited from the last translation of the bible.
But notwithstanding this concession, it must be observ’d,
Firfi, That in all these cases, the expreffion is, to lighten a thing, as in this versicle of the Te Deum. See Rev. XXI. 23.
Secondly, in the Latin original of Te Deum, from whence this in our morning service is translated, it is conceived thus, Fiat miferi cordia tua,
Domine, fuper nos, quemadmodum speravimus in tu. And in like manner the Greek version of Dr Duport,
γένοιο κύριε ο έλεός σε εφ' ημάς, καθάπερ ήλπισαμεν επί σοί.
Thirdly, This passage of the hymn is evidently taken from the last verse of the 33d plalm,
Let thy merciful kindness, O Lord, be upon us: like as we do put our trust in thee.
Where the Vulgate Latin, which was that version which St Ambrose the author of the Te Deum made use of, agrees to a title with the Latin words of the hymn recited above.
Fourtbly, As this hymn is a close and literal version of the Latin original throughout, it is not very probable that our translators should apply a figurative word in this place, so foreign from the fimplicity of the Latin text, and no where else.
For these reasons, I incline to think, that Dr Bennet has absolutely mistaken the meaning of this word, and that it has a sense less figurative, and more nearly approaching to the original of St Ambrose. I believe it to be a word quite different from what the doctor imagines, and no other than our present English word to light, which means to come or fall down upen, in which sense we use it commonly with the Prepositions off or upon; off, in regard to the thing we descend or come down from, and en or upon in regard of that we descend upon. So Gen. xxiv. 64. She ligbted off the camel. Judg. iv. 15. Sijera lighted down off his chariot. Ratb. 2. 3. Her hap was to light on a part of the field belonging unto Boaz. 2 Sam. xvII. 12. We will light upon him as the dew falleth on the ground : And once more concerning inanimate things, IS. 1x. 8. The Lord sent a word unto Jacub, and it hath lighted upon Ifrael
. In short, it is the Saxon word lihten, defilire, to alight; and you will please to remember, Mr Urban, that the English translation of the Te Deum was made in Henry VIII's.time, for it appears in his Primer, where, as well as in the first book of K. Edward VI. the word is lyghten. In our modern English, this termination of the infinitive used in en or in, is very much dropp'd, but in our old books it occurs every where; in the first 800 lines of Chaucer you have it above 20 times, and in Henry VIII's time. The old Saxon termination, for such it is, might well be retain'd, tho' now we never say to lighten upon, but to light or alight upon : and this antique termination was the very thing that misled Dr Bennet, inducing him to think it a different word, and the same as enlighten.
The sense then will be, O Lord let thy mercy light, or come, or fall upon us, as our trust is in thee ; and this is very natural and easy, agreeing best with, and coming neareft to St Ambrose's original, as also to that other passage in the morning prayer, O Lord shew thy mercy upon us.
Versicles after the creed, And in the litany, O Lord let thy mercy be thewed upon us, as our trust is in thce.
I am Sir, Your humble servant,