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we ought to repent: and, being favoured with the gospel, we ought to believe, to pray, to submit to God, to return to him, and to walk in all his ordinances and commandments. But we are not of ourselves disposed or able to do this: and the Holy Spirit is promised to "work in us to will and "to do" according to these our obligations. So that the dispositions and actions, which are really good in the sight of God, are not called in scripture moral virtues, but "the fruits of the Spirit.”

If these things be kept in mind, most of the objections, often made to our doctrine in this particular, fall to the ground, and are evidently opposed to opinions which we totally disallow and protest against.

II. I proceed more directly to shew what is implied in the promise before us.

Man, created in the divine image, was alive to God and holiness: but, as his natural life was necessarily dependent on the providential support of his Creator, so his spiritual life was preserved by the power and presence of the Holy Spirit. In the day that he ate of the forbidden fruit he died; the Holy Spirit quitted his polluted temple, and man became "dead in trespasses and sins."

By the fall, he did not lose his rational capacities, though they were no doubt greatly impaired, and rendered far less capable than before of governing his animal propensities: but he lost his spiritual life, his capacity of taking delight in God and heavenly things; and consequently he became an apostate and an idolater, seeking satisfaction in the enjoyment of worldly objects.

This is universally the condition of man, as unregenerate so that the greatest philosopher is as entire a stranger to the delight which an angel enjoys in loving and adoring God, as the mere animal is to that pleasure which the philosopher experiences, whilst successfully investigating the objects of nature.

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It is then the first part of the gracious office performed by the Holy Spirit, to "quicken the "dead in sin;" to raise fallen man from the death ' of sin to a life of righteousness;' and to restore him to the capacity of loving and delighting in God and his worship and service. And on this account the Holy Spirit is called in the Nicene creed, The author and giver of life.' "Ye must be "born again." "Except a man be born again, of "water and of the Spirit, he cannot see," "cannot enter into, the kingdom of God." For the baptism of water is no more than an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace;' which inward and spiritual grace is a 'death unto sin, and a new birth unto righteous'ness.' And to ascribe this change of our condition to the outward sign, preserves indeed " the "form of godliness," but " denies the power of it." If then we, though natives of a Christian country, are born in sin and the children of wrath;' as we are expressly taught by our Church catechism; we must as much need the quickening influences of the Holy Spirit, as they did to whom Christ and his apostles first preached the gospel.

The same divine Agent is spoken of in scripture as the Spirit of truth and wisdom, as the author and giver of all spiritual knowledge, and as illumi

nating the mind with the light of divine truth. "I will pray the Father, and he shall give you an"other Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever, even the Spirit of truth." "He shall teach

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you all things, and bring all things to your re"membrance, whatsoever I have said unto you." "He will guide you into all truth." Thus St. Paul prays in his epistle to the Ephesians, "That "the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, "the Father of glory, may give unto you the Spirit "of wisdom and revelation, in the knowledge of "him; the eyes of your understanding being en


lightened, that ye may know what is the hope of "his calling." He certainly did not mean to pray that the Spirit of prophecy should be given to them all; but that they might all be enabled, by the divine illumination of the Spirit, to understand aright the revelation given them in the Old Testament, and by the preaching of the apostles.

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In like manner, our church teaches us to pray, not only that the Lord would please to illumi'nate all bishops, priests, and deacons, with true 'knowledge and understanding of his holy word;' but that he would grant us, by the same Spirit' which was poured out on the apostles, 'to have a right judgment in all things.' And it is remarkable that in the short collects for the king, for the royal family, and for the clergy, similar petitions are inserted: Replenish him with the grace of thy Holy Spirit: Endue them with thy Holy Spirit :' Send down upon them the healthful Spirit of thy ' grace.'

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John xiv. 16-26.


And indeed, if, notwithstanding external advantages, "we be by nature the children of wrath even as others:" if, "our understanding being "darkened, we be alienated from the life of God "through the ignorance that is in us, because of "the blindness of our hearts:" then it is certain that we need this inward illumination of the Holy Spirit, even as much as they did to whom the gospel was first preached; not to reveal new doctrines, but to free our minds from the effects of our various prejudices and corrupt passions, that we may discern spiritual things, and understand the nature and glory of revealed truth.

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"When He," says our Lord, speaking of the promised Comforter, "is come, he will convince "the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment." These are part of the effects which follow from his divine illumination. When freed from the power of our proud and carnal prejudices, we are led to scriptural views of the perfections, law, and government of God, and our relations and obligations to him; we begin to form a right judgment of ourselves, of our past conduct, and of the present disposition of our hearts. This produces a conviction of our sinful state and character, an inquiry after the way in which man may be justified before God, and a serious expectation of the future judgment. And, when this conviction is rendered deep and permanent, it prepares the soul for understanding and welcoming the revelation of the gospel, "submitting to the righteousness of God," and "counting all but loss for the excellency of the

John xvi. 8.

knowledge of Christ" and his salvation. Nay, the want of this conviction is the grand reason why the peculiar doctrines of Christianity are so much neglected, despised, or perverted, by men called Christians. If then the Holy Spirit be given us for this purpose, we shall soon feel and act as they did at the day of Pentecost, who hearing St. Peter's discourse "were pricked in their heart and said, "Men and brethren what shall we do?" And, when further instructed in the gospel, "they gladly "received the word, and were baptized; and the "same day there were added to them about three "thousand souls."

Thus our Lord adds, "He, the Spirit of truth, "shall glorify me; for he shall receive of mine "and shall shew it unto you. All things that "the Father hath are mine; therefore, said I, he "shall take of mine and shall shew it unto you."2 Hence we learn that it is one grand part of the office performed by the Holy Spirit, to give us high and honourable apprehensions of Christ; to render him glorious in our eyes and precious to our hearts; to endear to us his person, his love, his salvation; to excite in us fervent desires after the blessings which he bestows, and to fill us with admiring adoring love and gratitude to him.-Now can it be questioned, whether these views and affections are as necessary for us as for the primitive Christians? And are not men's low thoughts of this glorious Saviour, and their scanty expectations from him, and the disrepute into which warm affections towards him are fallen, evident effects of the ne

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