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phenated who in the interest results of the lasthalf-dozen elecof Ireland tries to involve her tions show the direction which in war?

their thoughts are taking. This is my explanation of In Ireland the revolutionary the origin of the anti-nation- party is on the other hand alist bias

of the English intensely nationalist. Its goal revolutionary party. Whether is what has been the goal of all right or wrong, that bias will Nationalists, at any rate of the always provent that party peasant and working classes, at from ever having any consider- all times—the independence of able following in Great Britain, Ireland. Now, while there is The average Englishman, how- no necessary antipathy be. ever disoontented he may be tween nationalism and comwith his government or his munism, there is equally no oiroumstanoes, is always at necessary sympathy between heart proud of the greatness of them. And, indeed, for a long his country and the glory of time the nationalist and the her past; and he will never communistio revolutionary support a party, whatever its movements in the country ran objects, whioh habitually reviles in completely separate chanher. Already not merely the nele. The history of their revolutionaries but the moder- union is somewhat interesting. ate Labourites have reason to The revolutionary Nationalist remember this. Six months party consisted originally of a ago the working men, dis- number of amiable enthusiasts appointed with the delay in who dreamt of making Irish the advent of that now heaven the language of the people and now earth which had been and the people an independent promised them to follow the nation. Their chief efforts to end of the war, were turning fulfil these dreams, 80 far as from Lloyd George to the I could see, consisted in putLabour party to hasten it. In ting up the names of streets eleotion after election Labour in Irish, which the people oould candidates towered over their not read, with & translation Coalition and Liberal oppo- into English whioh the people nents by thousands of votes. could read, and stamping their The revolutionary party saw letters with the King's head olear the arrival of a Bolshevist turned upside down. Its leaders British Republio. Meanwhile consisted of some writers and British soldiers and police were scholars who produced many being murdered in scores in literary works in support of Ireland, Egypt, and India, for the Irish language and Irish being Britishers and doing revolution, which were often their duty to Britain ; and the learned, but seldom literature revolutionaries' only comment and never dangerous. This was that we must give the was the commenoement of the murderers whatever they chose now ferocious conspiracy known to ask. The working men there- to the world as the League of upon began to think, and the Sinn Feiners.

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Alongside this innocent strikers, and after it ended movement there was another he found it convenient to of a very different character. leave Dublin. His place was Its leader was called Jim Lar- taken by a far abler man, kin. He was probably an Irish. James Connolly. Connolly was man by birth, - his enemies, as strong communist who were numerous, asserted Larkin, but he was that he was the son of James praotical Sinn Feiner, who pat Carey, the betrayer of the the independence of Ireland infamous Invincibles, but this even before the establishment seems without foundation,- of a commune. He laid his and he professed to be a plans to fuse the two moveNationalist in politics, but in ments, and he succeeded in practice he an inter- oarrying out his plans. How nationalist, at least as much at he contrived to do so I cannot home in England, Sootland, or tell. America as in Ireland. He Henceforth James Connolly may be described as a pre was the real head of both the Bolshevio Bolshevio. His ob- communistio Transport Unionject was to destroy society as ists and the nationalist Sinn at present constituted all the Feiners, and he was this by reaworld over, and create a new son of the faot that he had the society of the proletariat. At only praotical intelleot among present he is, I believe, in jail their leaders. He set about on & conviction of criminal openly organising and arming conspiracy to do this in the them for rebellion. The only United States.

difference disoussed in their He oame to Dublin to organ- numerous newspapers or at ise the Irish Transport Union, Liberty Hall was as to the and he accomplished his work date of the outbreak. England with such energy and skill that was then engaged in her lifehe was soon able, by a general and death struggle with Gerstrike, to paralyse all the oity's many. One party, consisting oommercial and manufacturing chiefly of Transport Unionists, activity. When more moderate and supported by James Conmen pointed out to him that nolly, on the principle that he was destroying the trade of England's diffioulty is IreDublin, his only answer was, land's opportunity, was eager “Damn the trade of Dublin !” for an immediate rising. The He made it olear he was not a other party, consisting ohiefly mere trades unionist out to of Sinn Feiners, urged that improve the condition of work- the rising should be postponed ing men, but a revolutionary till England was definitely out to set up a commune.

In worsted in the war. This difthis he received the enthusi- ference between them was very astio support of the Dublin hotly debated and never really labourers.

settled. However, the strike did not The combined movement in the end greatly benefit the had at this time oomparatively


small support from the publio. heartedness of its opponents Unioniste, whether workmen within the movement and the or employers, hated it because opposition of the Home Rulers it was Nationalist; merchants without it, and Celtio Ireland and farmers, whether Unionist believed it. Henceforth, whator Nationalist, abhorred it be- ever orimes this party might cause it was communist; and commit, it was disloyalty to these olasses between them oon- Ireland to denounce the orimstituted three-fourths of the inals, and absolute treason to population of Ireland. If the Ireland to inform against them. Chief Secretary had been & This revulsion of feeling in man of energy and determin- favour of the party of action, ation, the whole movement in wbat has now come to be might have been suppressed called the Sinn Fein movewith little trouble and with ment, had two effects on its almost universal approval; but composition which were of the the Chief Secretary was Mr utmost importanoe. In the Augastine Birrell, who was so first place, it induced multiweak that he oould not be tudes of enthusiastic young resolate

against the Nationalist farmers and merUnionists. He let things drift ohants to join it in spite of its till the almost invited insur- communist tend, This imreotion oame, and the oapital proved the intelligence of the of Ireland was in the hands party and supplied it with of the rebels. I am told that ample funds and arms, for when the news of this calamity never were these so plentiful was brought to bim, Mr in Ireland as they are to-day. Birrell was asleep in an arm. In the second place, it attached chair in certain London to the active party those olub, We have heard much anoient predatory secret sociof the destruction of life at eties which identified its comAmritsar. I wonder how munist objects with their many more lives have been own, These societies date lost through Mr Birrell's from the terrible days of the feableness than through eighteenth century, when half General Dyer's fierceness. And the people of Celtio Ireland how many more will yet be had never enough to eat, and lost !

those who had nothing formed James Connolly was tried themselves into organisations by court-martial for treason to rob from those who had. and executed. He had been In quiet times they sink to the leader of the party which impotence, but when political favoured early rebellion, and trouble comes their power rethe rebellion had failed. Yet vives and their memberebip

. the rebellion made the fortune inoreases, and they, by acting of his party. It alleged, with as if they were rebels, are some show of reason, that the enabled to aot as what they failure of the rebellion was due really are-robbere. to the hesitation and half. This combination of par

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ties in a movement to over- farmers, usually owning their throw English government in own farms and in a comfortIreland seems formidable able way of business: such enough, and so, sure enough, it men have no age for comis at present; and yet it is munism. Without their supjust this combination which, port no movement, political or it seems to me, will, if we have social, in Ireland oan live; a little patience, lead to the and once the present fever defeat of the movement. Men subsides a little, I think we with land of their own and a may expeot most of them to oomfortable balance at their look with great coldness on bank oannot aot very cheer- any movement, whatever else fully with men without either, its objeot, which threatens the and one of whose objeots is seourity of their possessions. to share both; and honest At this moment I have reason men oannot aot very long with to believe many of them are men who are out for pillage. coereed into the acceptance of Fear of the vengeance whioh rebel rule only by terrorism, would follow secession from and for the existence of that their ranks has so far kept terrorism not they, but the the different parties together; blunders and feebleness of the but already we hear of cases government, are primarily rewhere stolen money has been sponsible. When that terrorrestored and the thieves tried ism has been dethroned, then by the Sinn Fein courts and we shall have an Ireland punished. When a thief is which, if not loyal, will be at forbidden to rob, he oan al. least peaceful, and, having ways turn informer.

geen the risks that revolution Besides, the bulk of Celtio brings with it, even in a way Irishmen

small contented.





"YOUR Honour," said the that is quite evident. But Inspeator of Police, “there are unfortunately the olerk at the two jungly men from over the blookhouse was away at the Administrative Line brought village buying chickens, or in this morning by a military tobacco, or something, and policeman from the frontier none of the sepoys can write blookhouse. They walked and not many of them can straight up to the post in talk Burmese, let alone the the middle of the day carry- language of these people, your ing arms. They made no Honour. All that the military attempt at ooncealment, and policeman can say is that the when they were asked what men said it was very cururi, they wanted they said they very urgent. The two men had a communioation to make were allowed to come on after to Government. They were they had deposited their guns told that acoording to stand- and dhas, and the rest are ing orders they must deposit oamped in leaf shelters on the their arms. They said they other side of the river, waiting

, could not give up their gans, for them to come baok, I and were informed that unless questioned them at the police they did they could not be station, but all they say is allowed to go on.

So they that they are headmen of went baok over the frontier villages, and that they beg

, stream and sat talking with that they may be allowed to one another for some time. approach your Honour. One Then two of them came back of them asserts that your walking through the water, Honour knows him very well

, and said their business was but according to custom he very important and that they will not give his name.' wanted to see you. They “Knows me quite well! I mentioned you by name wonder who he is. Well, let Kako, which is the way all them come in — and, if they the people about here pro- stay a long time, come in and nounce your Honour's name, say that it is time to go to as your Honour knows.' the court-house,"

"Did they say what they The Inspeotor salaamed and wanted ?" asked Captain Kirk- went out, and a few minutes wood. “I make a point of afterwards two wiry-looking seeing all these people, but I men in short waist - cloths, like to know what they have barely coming to the knee, come about first."

padded coats, and tarbans con. “No, they did not say. It

It sisting of a dingy wisp of cloth is not a cattle-stealing oase, wound round their knotted

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