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If one were asked to choose the resort of capitalists and a a building in Berlin to be a Junkers, the offspring in monument of the spirit of bronze and marble of the glut overweening pride, ostenta- of German prosperity that led tious wealth, and unlimited up to the national fall. ambition in which Germany There it stands, jutting out made her fatal bid for world.
on to the aristooratio Pariser dominion, I would not take Platz, in front of the historio the Imperial Sobloss, with its Brandenburger Thor. It is memories of Frederiok the No. 1 on Unter den Linden, Great; nor yet those hideous the Kaiser's processional way. red - briok faotories of blood. The Adlon was to have served shed, the War Sohool and the 48 grand stand for the triGeneral Staff Offices, where the umphal return of the Imperial German sword was sharpened; armies after the rapid victory nor even the Deutsche Bank, expected in 1914, when the where German wealth was conquering troops brought back mobilised, straddling ostenta- the overlordship of Europe to tiously over a whole parish of lay at the feet of the German the city, with bridges con- Emperor. On the outbreak of neoting its departments over war, the all-foreseeing General intervening streets. To my Staff requisitioned in advance mind the memories of old every window of the hotel Imperial arroganoe linger still for the Kaiser's guests at the more about the Adlon Hotel, anticipated festival of viotory.
VOL, CCVII.-NO. MCCLVI.
Here, on the 1st of January, dom have walls heard more the Kaiser used to give an bitter sighs than those of the annual dinner to his Generals, Junker rempant
that yet at which he delivered a confi. lingers in this invaded predential speech on Army polioy serve. for the coming year. The Em- Yet Jankerdom has still peror's bust, in the helmet and strength enough to kick, breastplate of the Cuirassiers This odd German survival of the Guard, still swaggers in of feudal ideas into modern stone above the fireplace in the Europe is dying hard. It has vestibule, though it owes its pre- the vitality of all oreeds that servation there only to the ready rest on an ideal. The Pruswit of the hotel manager, who sian Junker, who was the told the mob destroying Kaiser- steel ribs of the ferro-oonemblems at the revolution of orete struoture of the old November 1918 that the statue German Empire, has one represented Lohengrin, And quality whioh gives strength in this entrance-ball used to be to his oa use. He is sinoere, seen, at one time or another, all with the deadly fanatical sinthe Big Men of Germany,—the cerity of the narrow-minded, Generals, the Statesmen, the in the belief that he is a Financiers,—the whole galaxy divinely ordained
overlord. of Realpolitiker, whose
whose de- He respeots his own title and liberate aim it was to make title-deeds 28 a priest respeots Deutschland über Alles in der his
Orders. Pions Welt a oonorete reality. Junkers would even militar
ise God: in their private And now, after Germany's chapels you
the defeat, this Berlin hostelry Messiah Himself depicted in still plays a rôle symbolio of the white mantle and steel the country's reversed oondi- gauntlets of the militarytions, for here live the Allied monastio Order of the Teuofficers, whose functions are tonio Knights. to dismantle the militarist Politioally, the Prussian system whioh the Adlon used Junker is as out-of-date 88 to typify.
the King's Champion at Seldom within five years British Coronation. And oonhas any building witnessed a sequently, when a Junker gets greater somersault of history; control of the machine guns, seldom has the overthrow of he is a far more dangerous misguided ambition been more institution than ever was his dramatioally illustrated; sel medieval prototype.
The Allies are ohiefly re- In the bad peace whioh they sponsible for the recent flare- drew up in Paris, they made up of expiring Junkerdom in the mistake of treating Ger
mans 48 & homogeneous people.
No country in the world-ex: the Junkers, militarists, prooept & few small states of fessors, and pan - Germans, cognate social institutions like who, until they die out, will Roumania-contains so diver- always be so much politioal gent interests and such
yeast, keeping the German spirit of olass - hostility as national mixture in uneasy does this fifty-year-old arti- fermentation; while, on the
; fioial nation of modern Ger- other hand, they made postmany.
easy You can make sound gener. the satisfaction of the just alisations about France, be- olaims of Allied war-victims 08080 all Frenohmen, from would allow for the great the peasant in the fields to mass of the German people, the President in the Elysée, which is capable of being think the Bame lines, won over to loyal 00-operaoherish the
same highly tion with the rest of the national ideals, labour to- oivilised world. wards the same ends. You By its failure thus to exploit oan generalise about the white the faots of German internal nations of the British Empire, politios, and, above all, by the where racial common - sense delay with whioh it W&8 and inherited traditional pre- brought into foroe, the Peace judioe take the place of the Treaty has worked as a most Frenohman's conscious ideals useful instrument of propaand keen intelleotual pro- ganda in the hands of the 008808. Amerioa, too, has a Gorman Janker olass, wbile national character of her own the German Republioan Govwhich she quickly stamps ernment, which adopted an upon all her immigrants. But outwardly submissive mood what, exoept language, has the towards its stern provisions, Lutheran German baron of has been constantly weakened bleak East Prussia in common thereby in its authority over with the Catholio peasant of the nation. the Bavarian mountains; or This was especially the 0888 the pallid, oynioal, Berlin
Berlin in the matter of the surrender workman of Moabit with the of the war oriminals. Here even - tempered tiller of the the Allies first demanded that vineyards of the Mosel ? Yet Ludendorff and other leaders of there was no one at the Peace the German Army should be Conference who had the skill given up along with the to turn these internal differ- common murderers and plan. enoos of Germany to good derers. Then they withdrew account. It would have been this demand. The German a great thing if, by skilful militarists, who had been fulstatesmanship, the Allies bad minating about resistance, at contrived to differentiate be- once olaimed a viotory. “Your tween the mutually opposed miserable weak-kneed Governoomponent olasses that make ment wanted to yield these up the German nation, ham- national heroes,” they boasted stringing as maoh as possible to their fellow .countrymen.
“We said No, and it was No. it looks to observers in Britain
what stout or the United States. fellows we are.”
A strong, sane, militarist That was the atmosphere government which showed which the Junkers had con- that it had national and not trived to produce in Germany olass interests at heart, and when they started their revo- made at any rate a show of lution. If they had not mis- liberal principles, might have managed it so hopelessly in found tolerant following the most elementary details, if among large classes of the they had had sufficient sense German people. But & conto mask their real aims behind spiraoy of incompetent, selfa å programme of popular re- seeking officers and aristocrats forms, they would have stood had no chance at all. And it some ohanoe of making good. took Germany but twenty
There is muoh that is rotten four hours to find out that in the state of Germany. The Dr Kapp, General Lüttwitz, present Socialist Government and their ana vowed but everhas not been able to prevent present sponsor,
General a shameless system of pro- Ludendorff, amounted to no fiteering in the necessaries of more than this. life, which is one of the root The Junkers failed because sources of the present desper- their attempt was organised ately high cost of living. by officers, and it has been Moreover, all classes of the shown again and again, both German nation that still have during the war and sinoe, anything to loge, and value & that German officers have no quiet life, are genuinely soared politioal senso whatever. All of Bolshevism, which in this that they have in its place country seems a far more real is an out-of-date class preand aggressive danger than judice.
The Junker revolution of but as the Bolshevist Army Maroh 13 had its first be- was then on the frontiers of ginninge last autumn in the the Baltic States, and the Baltio Provinces. There, when retirement of ,
the German the war ended, a force was in troops would have left the existenoe called “The Iron door open for Esthonia, Lithu
. Division,” commanded
ania, and Latvia to be overran, General von der Goltz, of the the Supreme Council decided same family as the Marshal to send the division back again who reorganised the Turkish and use it as a frontier gaard Army.
against & Bolshevist offensive The first order which the westwards. The troops of the Allies gave after the Armistice Iron Division were good fightto the Iron Division was that ing material. Their officers it should return to Germany, had much the same kind of
influence over them that the the unpleasant one of looking leaders of mercenary
com- for unoongenial civilian work panies exercised in the Thirty in disorganised Germany. Years' War, Discipline that Large numbers of the men affected their fighting efficienoy accepted it. The Monarchist was striot, but plundering of party found the
necessary the civilian population of the money.
Thanks to the conBaltio States, whose property nivanoe of Junker staff officers, they were supposed to be de- the disbanded men kept their fending, was winked at. The arms. more feared and hated the In this way was formed the troops of the Iron Division nucleus of a force of reliable oame to be, the readier they troops, ripe for any purpose to grew to carry out blindly any which their officers might call orders their offioers might give; them. The hand of the revoluand the latter were not alow tionists was armed. in oonceiving the plan of using It now remained to win over this reokless band of meroen- to the Monarobist cause a large aries as an instrument for the backing of army officers. This overthrow of the new Re- was an easy task. Few were publican Government in Ger- taken 80 fully into the conmany.
fidence of the leaders of the Last December the Allies Junker movement as to be told sent the French General actual details of the plot, but Niessel into the Baltic Pro- their support was assured when vinces to see that this “Iron the time oame. Division" was at last brought Melodrama tooplayed its part back to Germany for demob- in this work of organisation. ilisation. They came, looting In the Hohenzollernstrasse, one as they marched. And on of the streets in the fashionable arrival in Germany they were Tiergarten quarter, there is a daly disbanded. But the dis- large modern house whiob, bandment was only a sham. during the closing months of The officers of the Baltio last year, was used as troops had come to a secret international Allied club by understanding with their men the various members of Allied that the latter, instead of nationalities who going to their homes, should living in Berlin. The club was be spread about on various closed at the end of December, country estates in the Junker owing to the fact that the province of East Prussia, members of the naval and where, living in idleness on military Allied Missions had good country food, and with formed a olub of their own on money in their pookets, they Unter den Linden, while the should await orders to maroh civilian members
not on Berlin to overthrow the sufficient in number to keep Sooialist Cabinet and establish the place going. It was not a Junker Government in its long, however, before the preplace. Sach a prospect was mises were once more opened an attractive alternative to as & olub-house. A German