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the peace.

promise to disarm, with what show that he has a bias in oelerity he may build up favour of the enemy. The again an army and & navy other fact, that his economio which shall astonish Europe. pedantry prevents him from For France the activities of seeing what would be the Germany are a real and con- politioal effeot of his argument, stant menace. For the people deprives his pamphlet of all of England they are a faint- value. Mr Keynes, being dely remembered dream. And ficient in the historie sense, France, which is in the habit oares not a jot what happens of dealing with realities, knows across the Rhine.

Not only that the best way of weaken. would he smooth Germany's ing Germany is to compel her path to peace—he would invite to carry out the provisions of her also to turn Russia into

She knows also a commercial vassal; and if that in this policy she does Germany, thus

generously not obtain the single-minded holpen, found herself ready in help which is her due of those ten years to re-enforoe the who shared with her the toils dootrine of blood and iron, of war, and to the high hopes Mr Keynes doubtless would whioh followed the armistice satisfy himself that the gospel there suoceeds something akin of political economy had not to despair.

been outraged.

To be sure, She sees herself still beset he talks very much the by her hereditary enemy, and pedants talked in 1914, who asks for the help to which she declared that there would be has a right. And she hears no war because there was no from Mr Asquith, whom she money in it. Perhaps there is indisoreet enough to believe is not much difference between a living politician, e benevo- his outlook and the ineffable lent statement that he will do Norman Avgell's. Both the his best to revise the terms one and the other are ready of peace in Germany's favour. to assert that in certain conShe hears from the oynical ditions this or that must bapand soulless economists that pen. It never happens as they two years of the bagman's say, and then they shift their golden age are worth another ground, wholly unrepentant of war—that only if we can onoe the harm they have done their more buy and sell in the mar- best to do. kets of Germany nothing else Unhappily the French oanmatters. It would, in truth, not see Mr Keynes in his just be diffioult to overrate the proportion. They know that harm that has been done in he was present for a while at France by Mr Keynes' mis- the Conference in Paris, and chievous book. The mere fact they attach more importance that Mr Keynes belittles the than they need to his argument. damage whioh the Germans Their distrust of Mr George is have inflioted upon the fair better founded, because, if Mr land of Franoe is sufficient to Keynes doesn't matter mach,

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Mr George matters, unhappily, little enough exonse, interfered a vast deal. And the French in the affairs of Europe, which peroeive, as we peroeive, that he imperfectly understood, and the objection to Mr George is then left in the lurch all those not that he has a polioy hostile who had been foolish enough to Franoe, but that he has not to trust him. The firm alliance a polioy at all. If Mr George, which wasonoe destined to unite in the House of Commons, solidly France with England deolares with a great many and the United States is still words that he will support unknit, owing either to Mr France in all her demands Wilson's bad faith Mr upon Germany, the assurance Wilson's inoompetence. And is of little use. For the French once more France stands alone have learned that it is inex- with a Germany nearly twice pedient to attaoh muoh value as great as herself still on to Mr George's eloquenoe, since the alert across the Rhine. . what he says to-day he will If Mr Wilson has forgotten assuredly take baok to-morrow. his promises, or has found

. They blame him not so much himself unable to redeem them, for his polioy as for his laok of he has at least preserved bis polioy. And not understand- power of irritation. Of this ing that Mr George oannot neither disease nor the look farther ahead than his tivity of his political enemies parliamentary majority, that has availed to deprive him. the grandeur and the honour of Though he is not England are beyond his grasp, mitted by the Senate of the they asoribe to infirmity of United States to ratify the purpose what is really the out- peace with Germany, he oome of a dangerous and con- isetes his orders and opinions sistent egoism. But in neither from the White House as case oan the French take com- though he were not the Prefort in Mr George's verbal sident of a democratie State 888urances. And if Mr George but the Sovereign of the has failed them, what shall World. He has insolently they say of President Wilson's broken in pieces the League of defeotion ?

Nationg, which Europe gave Mr Wilson is, in fact, cast him for a plaything, and he by every Frenchman for the has left it to the Allies to pat part of the villain of the the shattered fragments topeace. We do not suppose gether as best they may. The that the great Idealist is per- politician who laughed at mitted to read what is said Castlereagh, and Metterniob, of him in the French news- and Talleyrand, who thanked papers. If he were, it would God that at last the plain man" be very good for his soul's had come into his own, has health. But he is recognised proved himself helpless in act by the French correotly enough and exasperating in word. His as the first cause of the woes

open condemnation of what he of France. It was he who, with wag pleased to call “French


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militarism" caused, as perhaps and fears of Europe mean. it was intended to cause, a vast Beoause they are far removed deal of purposeless irritation. from the danger of invasion, It was, of course, an expression, they fondly believe that they not of Franoe's character but are the only men in the world of Mr Wilson's ignorance. who cherish the “ideal” of Knowing nothing of France, peace. Instead of boasting, the man who invented the they should give thanks upon phrase, “too proud to fight," their knees that theirs is not confuses the necessity of self. the hard destiny of France. defence with a mad Chauvinism. Alas! they cannot learn, The Suppose Mexioo, which lies battles which they fought in over the border of the United the war have taught them States, were strong 28 nothing. Not long since an Germany and as ambitious, American

paper celebrated would Mr Wilson oondemn his in its dithyrambio style the own country 88 "militarist,” pleasure which the " 'doughif it showed a desire to streng. boys" felt

returning then its frontiers and to be home. It was not, we ready to repel the attack of the told, the absence in Europe invader? When, in 1914, Ger. of “bath-tubs” which alone many made an onslaught upon disgusted the gallant warriors France, France took up the of Amerioa. That indeed was essential duty, imposed upon hard to bear. But that which every high-spirited and honour- most bitterly distressed the able country, of self-defence, brave


New not in the spirit of levity World was Europe's love of or

boagtfulness, bat with war! Truly they change not all

the humility true their mind when they come courage.

She has lost some across the sea. They saw a two millions of men in the devastated world. They saw fight; she has seen her terri- France and England mourntory invaded and devastated ing for the bravest of their -in brief, she has borne sons, and they talk about sacrifices which Mr Wilson Europe's love of war! It and his countrymen have not would be difficult to match shared, and which their lack this insensitiveness in all the of imagination forbids them annals of the world. But at to appreciate. There is noth- any rate Europe will gladly ing France wishes less than accept the oonolusion at another war.

She complaing, which the writer has justly enough, that the re- diffioulty in arriving. He fusal to divide and weaken would hang aeross America a Germany exposes her still to vast flag bearing the name & risk from which she recoils of Monroe, and leave Europe in horror.

alone to "love war” by herThe truth is that Mr Wilson self. In this exolusiveness and his countrymen do not America will find that France understand what the hopes oordially agrees. But France

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rightly enough demands a man upon whose exertions the reciprooal policy of non-inter- very existence of a great bosvention. She will assuredly pital depended-he received refrain from interfering with (without argument or oomthe affairs of Amerioa. She plaint) the sum of 4000 francs expects that America, for her a year, far less than that which part, will refrain as well from the meanest sweeper of the diotation as from oritioism. hospital's corridors demanded After all, the demand of not in vain. And the meanest Franoe is not exorbitant. She sweeper had the advantage of asks nomore than that those who Dr Vaillant in this: if he fell with her put their signatures in the performance of his to the treaty of peace, should hazardous duty-if he tripped aid her loyally in seeing that over a badly-handled broom the provisions of that treaty -he was granted an ample are justly and exactly carried pension. For Dr Vaillant ont. She remembers that after there is no reward save the 1871 she held herself bound in consciousness of duty perhonour to perform what she formed and something added andertook to perform. She to the sum of human knowasks no less than that of her ledge. defeated for to-day.

But it is plain that, where And France deserves our the relative values of services sympathy because she is pagg. done are thus monstrously ing through the same crisis confused, there is little hope of democraoy in which we feel of true progress or essential urselves oppressed. In France, justice. The case of Dr Vailas in England, a new and a lant and the sweeper means false value is set upon men that the politicians have set and things. There is a ap for themselves in France, complete abgenoe of de- as in England, an infamously gree and subordination. Dis- false standard. It is not that cipline seems to have been such men as Dr Vaillant comleft behind in the trenches. plain. They find in the con quest The empty head, being numer- of human knowledge a reward ous, is the head which wins the which it is far beyond the rospoot of all politicians who power of demagogues to ascribe the exclusive possession confer. They can afford to of virtue and courage to the smile, even when the idle unskilled, the antaught, the sweeper boasts himself indisanoontrolled. A few weeks ago pensable to a hospital, which Dr Vaillant, a distinguished could not exist without the surgeon, lost an arm in ex- aid of the men of soience. perimenting with radium. He An injustice is done to the was ready to saorifice his life unskilled labourer, who is perfor his country, as were the suaded in his folly to believe

, gallant men who fought upon that he is the keystone in the field of battle. And as he civilisation's aroh. Another was a man of great talent-& dose of flattery is administered


to the politioian, who in shown by their avowed egoism Augier's phrase pursues “the at what a price they estimate first of the inexaot soiences,” the service of their country, and who is ready to believe and no doubt the hour is at that nothing matters so long hand when our English demaas the sweepers, always more gogues will rival in greed their numerous than the men of colleagues across the Channel. genius, are on his side. Noth- France, then, is ill at ease. ing, indeed, oan be more dan- She asks herself whether the gerous to the health and safety sacrifice of 2,000,000 brave of the State than this oynioal men is worth the poor results allianoe between the ignorant which she has attained. She voter and his representative. sees the same sort of poliThey are easily persuaded to ticians in power as did their agree that between them they best to lose the war. She hold the keys of heaven and remembers that while misearth, that upon their alliance creants, like Malvy, depends the future happiness permitted to prevent the of the human race. It is this appointment of Castelnau to absurd faith in the indispens. the high command, the solability of the demagogue that diers, even in the field, were has persuaded the members of not masters of their own craft. the French Chamber and the What a hubbub there would Frenob Senate to begin their have been if Castelnau or Fooh task of reconstruction by had dared to diotate to & voting an additional 12,000 politioian! Yet the politicians franos a year to each one of both sides the Channel themselves. M. Léon Daudet have never sorupled to interdid not overstate the fere with the business of war. when he declared that by this fare, which they did not and aot of gross selfishness the never will understand. These Chamber had committed are some of the memories which snioide. The soldiers, who impair the confidenoe of France. saved their country in the But beyond the realm of war, must wait for their pen- argument there is a vague sions. The men who cannot mysterious misgiving, which wait are the deputies and the is not easily accounted for. senators, who fight with their As in England, so in France, tongues, and refuse to carry the working classes do not on this worthless and anneo. want to work. They ask eggary warfare on less than daily, hourly, for an inoreage 27,000 francs a year. Nor is in wages and a decrease in it likely that the increased the hours of labour, more from income awarded to the poli. a vague feeling of unrest than ticians will do anything to from avarice. The small mob stop the corruption, private of swindlers and adventurers, and publio, which is the in- which calls itself the proleevitable ourse of a demooracy. tariat, demands in France, as The French politicians have it demands in Britain, the



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