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obnoxious is he to the very display, did not reply. Barparty he wishes to espouse that rington's judgment was soon he is only supportable by doing justified. Though still very those dirty acts the less vile young, he was given a fat refuse to exeonte.” 1

sineoure, and was made at the Notwithstanding these little same time a K.C., and so soon tiffs, which occasionally led to secured the leadership of his an exchange of bullets, the birouit. members of Grattan's Parlia- But if the members of Gratment lived a very jovial life, in tan's Parliament were well the best possible terms privately pleased with themselves, there with one another. Sir Jonah were very few other people, Barrington, in telling of his either in Ireland or in England, admission to the House, unoon- pleased with them. The first sciously shows the state of people to show this were their things among them. When he old friends the Volunteers. was returned for a family Having by their arms estabborough he says he had not lished an Independent Parliamade up his mind whioh party ment, they shortly began to to join-apparently it never think that it would be a good orossed his mind that such a thing by the same means to thing in the least degree oon- reform it and make it somecerned his "electors.” He seems what representative, at any to have liked the Patriots best, rate of the Protestants of the and dined by preference with kingdom. Acoordingly they them; but, on consideration, marohed once more to Dublin, he thought there was so much and once more lined the streets Parliamentary talent among with fixed bayonets and cannon them that if he joined them he ready to fire. They held a would count for nothing. On Convention at the Rotanda, the Government side it was and approved of a Bill of Redifferent: there he thought form. Henry Flood, anxious he might make something of to outdo Grattan as & patriot, & show; and besides, he adds, carried it to the House and that was the side which had there proposed it. Grattan the preferment. So he made fiercely opposed it. It was ap his mind, after mature well enough for the Volunteers and long deliberation; and, to coeroe the British Governhaving done

80, once ment into making Parliament went down to the House independent, but it was monand made a violent attaok on strous that they should attempt Grattan. It created something to coerce that Parliament into of a sensation, and Grattan, making itself representative who seemed pleased with the The House followed his lead

| The man so denounced was the grandfather of the most distinguished figure existing to-day among English lawyers, the venerable Hardinge Giffard, Earl of Halsbury, ex-Lord Chancellor of Great Britain.

and rejected the Bill by two to without the sanction of Parone.

liament. Pitt's oontention preThe Volanteers hesitated. vailed, and Fox turned to his Their leaders were divided, and friend Grattan for assistanoe. some of themselves were cool. Grattan induced his ParliaBesides, the American War was ment to deolare in Fox's sense. now over and the British Army The Irish Government refused returned home. The Volun. to transmit the House's resoteers thought, on the whole, lution to the Prince, and the it was not advisable to push House appointed a deputathings to extremities. They tion to convey it to him. returned home, and the bulk By the time the deputation of them ceased from that had reached London the King moment to feel anything had recovered, and resumed but soorn and contempt for his regal powers. But he Grattan's Parliament; and, was furious with the Irish though it took years for it to Patriots, and henceforward, in oome, the rebellion in favour his obstinate narrow-minded of an independent Irish ro. way, everything the Patriots publio was already in sight. advocated ho abhorred, and The late Lord Kitchener was probably from that day datos born in Kerry, and like all his invinoible antipathy to men brought up in Ireland Catholio Emancipation. Moredid not forget history. Is it over, Pitt was appalled by possible he was thinking of Grattan's folly. If the Irish the Irish Volunteers of the Parliament could choose for eighteenth, when he refused itself its own Regent, why could to consent to the arming of it not ohoose its own King? the Irish Volunteers of the From that day he was retwentieth century ?

solved that, when the chance By a most foolish sot Grat- oame, he would put an end tan's Parliament, on Grattan's to all danger of that. Again, motion, contrived to make though it was years before it itself equally disliked in Eng. came about, the Act of Union land. When King George III. was already in sight. became ingane, Pitt deolared, Upon this state of things in consonance with all preoe- soddenly burst the French dent, that it was the right of Revolution. The effeot the Parliament of England to Ireland was immediate. The determine who should be chosen Ulster republicans saw in it Regent in his stead, and to the dawn of human freedom, fix the bounds of his author. At the instigation of that ity. Fox, who regarded the most remarkable man, TheoPrince of Wales as a member bald Wolfe Tone, they estabof his his party,

party, maintained, lished the Society of United against all precedent, that the Irishmen, banded by secret Prince was entitled by the oath together to Constitution be Regent independent Irish

Irish republio




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based on the suffrages of all General Hoche is the only Irishmen, The Catholios of Continental soldier, sailor, or the South saw in it another statesman who ever realised case of England's diffioulty what the Tudors realised so being Ireland's opportunity. soon, that Ireland is the They joined up with the Achilles heel of Great Ulster United Irishmen, bat Britain. Napoleon himself Wolfe Tone had very little could not be got to see it, confidence in them or their and wasted an army in Egypt resolution. As for the landed trying to outflank Europe, gentry and the Irish Parlia- which, if landed in Ireland, ment, they saw the guillotine would have changed the fate set ap in College Green, and of the world. Afterwards in their heads sneezing into the St Helena he regretted bitterly basket, as were then doing his blindness. But Hoche saw the heads of the aristoorats clearly that if France held and others in Paris. They Ireland she could out Great immediately set about arming Britain off from the world ; their dependants, and such of and he urged on the French their tenantry as they could Government an invasion, and trust, and turning them into offered himself to lead it. His oorps of_undisciplined yeo. proposals were accepted, and manry.

These were let loose with forty-two ships and some over the country to search ont nineteen thousand pioked solsedition, and, as might be ex. diers he set sail for Bantry peoted, they did a great deal Bay. more.

In a year or two the England is queen of the country beoame a perfeot hell ocean, and even when she fails of unspeakable horror. This to aot her part the winds of

Grattan's Parliament's the ocean loyally proteot her. contribution to respeot for It was so in the time of human life and property in the Armada, and it was so Ireland.

in the Revolution of 1688: Grattan protested. His pro- and now it was to be 80 test was received with jeers again. After leaving Brest a and insults. Broken-hearted, sea mist_led to a dispersion he retired altogether from his of the French flotilla, and own Parliament.

when it reached Bantry Bay Wolfe Tone had meanwhile some seven ships were missing, found his way to

way to France. including the ship which carried There he worked wisely and General Hoche. Grouchy was unceasingly to interest the

the next in command. He for days French Government in Irish lay in Bantry Bay, anoertain affairs, and to

for what to do, and hoping that the Irish republioans the sup- Hoche would shortly arrive to port of a French army of take the responsibility for invasion, One man be did action. Meanwhile there was get interested, General Hoche. no British Navy on the sea

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or British Army on the land: a United Parliament. The only Ireland lay at his meroy. At classes who would not see it last a great gale from the were the Parliamentarians shore sprang up, and landing themselves and the tradesmen became impossible. Grouohy of Dublin, who benefited by an sailed away and brought his Irish Parliament, and some of soldiers baok to France, as the landowners, who saw that years after he brought his once the Union was carried soldiers back to France after their local importance would Napoleon had been defeated diminish. at Waterloo.

The means adopted to carry It is a point worth notice, the Union have been fiercely that on two occasions when denounced. They were just the fate of not merely England the same means &8 were but the world was in the adopted to oarry anything else balance, the overprudence of in Grattan's Parliament this man helped to make his bribery. The compensation own end of the scales kiok the granted to the patrons of rotten beam. England has reason to boroughs has also been reviled. be grateful to Grouchy. I oannot myself see that it was

I will say nothing of the worse to buy a rotten borough rebellion, which was on both in order to extinguish its resides &

mere succession of presentation than to bay it in horrors, except this, that from order to represent it; and such the moment it broke out the seats were openly bought and fate of Grattan's Parliament sold from the first day of was settled. The system of Grattan's Parliament to the divided government between last: Grattan himself bought the English Ministry in Lon- one for the purpose of entering don and the Irish Parliament the House in order to register in Dublin had landed Ireland his protest against the Union. in ruin. Men able to see re

That the Union did not bring cognised that one of two modes immediately Catholio emanciof managing the country's pation and the other benefits affairs was alone possible - to the Irish people which its oomplete administration and promoters hoped for was not legislation must reside in one due to them, but rather to authority: the only question those Patriots who, by their was whether that authority folly, had

inflamed King should be an Irish Republic George's mind against them or a United Parliament. The and everything they sought. Ulster republioans saw this: I have no doubt that in they had tried for an Irish spite of all the talk of oorRepublio and failed; they now ruption, many of those who accepted the United Parlia- voted for or against the Union ment. The Catholios of the soted from the highest motives. South saw it, and they, in One man's aotion has always hopes of better times, accepted struck me as pathetio. The

man was that Egan whom debate as long as he could in Grattan had roasted in such silence. At last, springing to burning language that for long his feet, he denounced the afterwards in every olub and Union and everybody who dining-room in Dublin a grilled supported it. When be had sole came to be called an Egan, exhausted bis fury he looked Egan had at one time an im- round the House, and then, menge practice at the Bar, but before resuming his seat, he long before the Union debates raised his hand above his it had quite disappeared, and head and cried out, “Long his sole means of subsistence live Ireland, and to hell with was the Chairmanship of Kil Kilmainham!” mainham. Egan was violent- After the Union he was ly adverse to the Union, but found one morning dead in he know if he spoke against his poor lodgings. All be posit in the House his dismissal sessed in the world lay on the from the Chairmanship would mantelpiece. It consisted of follow, He listened to the three shillings.


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