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power of supplying her wants. as is little enough — merely Politically, too, as well as com- sympathy in her distress moroially, she may serve our and the offer of friendship interests well. Broken and and counsel, Our name and dismembered as she is, she prestige were never higher remains a gateway to

gateway to the than they are to-day in East. If she comes under Eastern Europe, and

we German influence, as she may may still knit honourable if left to herself, she will fall and profitable alliances with again, reluotantly, into the nations ready to serve us, olutob of Germany, and with which neglect and indifference her enforced aid Germany may will inevitably drive into the yet realise her dream of Mittel rough and greedy arms of Europa.

What she asks of Germany.

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“This piece of sublime mysticism and nonsense."-- LORD CASTLEREAGU, 28th September 1815.

“It is good to be in the clouds ; but always remember to keep one foot on the ground."-Scottish Proverb.

No one who fought in the and remain in doubt about

oan doubt that it was it; and if the British tommy the spirit of intense nation- or French poilu had been told alism among the belligerents that the result of fighting on which enabled the Central to viotory would be that their Powers to fight so long & freedom to defend themselves storn obase, and which alti- and their honour would be, mately brought about their at any rate in part, surdownfall.

“I am sorry for rendered into the hands of an you,” said President Poincaré international council, the war to a French soldier. “Oh, it andoabtedly would not have

, is nothing, Monsieur,” replied boon won by the Allies. It the poila; “I offered France was because they loved honour my life-she has only taken and freedom and justice and my leg.” The story is typical, meroy, and not because they and the moral to be drawn loved each other, that the from it clear. The pith of it Allies were ready, at whatever lies in this, that there was no cost, to endure to the end. feeling whatever of inter- Very different, however, was national confraternity between the spirit which animated the the Allied peoples. Common English - speaking delegates interest and mutual respeot who forgathered in Paris to there was in abundance, but no settle the terms of peace. Few, communion of hearts. No one if any, of them had had percould have watohed a French sonal experienoe of fighting on division passing through a

the western front. Fewer village in British oooupation still were disposed to allow


the claims of national or im- man, and the Turk, are each perial sentiment to weigh – though sometimes misunduly in the soale. And the guided - the brother of the reason is not far to seek. The Englishman, and entitled as representatives of Great Brit- such to an equal share in ain reflected the sense of the determining the Government Government at Westminster, by which he is ruled. Obsessed and the views of the Govern- by the importance of the labour ment on foreign and imperial movement, whose aims they affairs were frankly and essen. had once fostered, and whose tially those of the Radioal demands they had habitually Party,

The Conservative conceded; half in sympathy members of the Government, with the principles of Bolshevik who for a decade or more prior philosophy, while deorying the to the outbreak of war had methods of the Soviets; it was been content to limit their only to be expected that the imperialistio efforts to pious British delegates would repair professions of faith, had during to the conference table, no the war surrendered their oon- doubt to make peace with servative principles en bloc, and Germany, but mainly, and with had become mere hewers of a full heart, to reconstruct the wood and drawers of water social order of Europe. They for Mr Lloyd George. And did not see that the social by instinot and tradition the disorder was organio, while the Radical Party is frankly anti- trouble with Germany was imperial and anti-national. merely funotional; that each “If you look to the history required separate treatment; of this country," said Mr Dig- and that to offer combined raeli on the 24th June 1872, treatment would remedy “you

will find that there has neither the one disorder nor been no effort 80 continuous, the other. The representatives 80 subtle, supported by 80 of the Dominions protested, much ability and acumen, as but in vain. . They-and Mr the attempts of Liberalism to Hughes in particular -- were effeot the disintegration of the given to understand that it was Empire.” It is only natural both bad form and bad taotios that this should be so, for the to take too much open themfundamental doetrine of Radi- selves, and were advised to caligm-sincerely and honestly leave their interests in held, and supported, so it is hands of those who were wiser, said, by the highest religious and more experienced in foreign teaching—is that every man affairs. is his brother's keeper; that The French were amazed all men and women are and dumfounded, but then the equal in the sight of God, German hordes had onoe been and should be granted equal nearer to Paris than Croydon privileges brothers by is to Westminster, and throughChristian men; and that the out the war were never farther Kaffir, the Hindu, the Ger. than Brighton is from London.

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Again and again they pressed dent's lack of authority to for guarantees which would for conclude a treaty. the future secure them against On December 18, 1916, Presi- . German aggression. It was all dent Wilson “takes the liberty in vain; and at last, exhausted of calling attention to the fact and dispirited, they were oom. that the objects which the pelled to accept, not what statesmen of the belligerents on they deemed to be essential both sides have in mind in this for their safety, but only war are virtually the same, as what President Wilson could stated in general terms to their be induced to demand from own people and to the world. Germany.

Each side desires to make the It was not diffioult in these rights and privileges of weak eiroumstances for President peoples and small States ag Wilson and his coadjators to secure against aggression or temper the severity of

severity of the denial in the future as the terms of peace, and to weave rights and privileges of the into the Treaty the covenant great and powerful States now of the League of Nations; for at war. Each wishes itself to the vision of a world democ- be made secure in the future, racy regulated by the spirit along with all other nations and of international brotherhood peoples, against the reourrence

natural and special of wars like this, and against appeal to the sentiment of the aggression of selfish interBritish delegates. As to how ference of any kind. . Eaoh far President Wilson, in fram- would be jealous of the formaing the polioy in which he so tion of any more rival leagues obstinately persisted in Paris, to preserve

uncertain was acting as a good Christian, balanoe of

power amidst and how far as a good Ameri. multiplying suspicions; but can, every one is entitled to his each is ready to consider the own opinion.

formation of

of & League of It is sufficient to indicate Nations to ensure peace and here a few facts which may be jastice throughout the world.” found useful in solving the On January 10, 1917, the problem. The election of Mr Belgians replied “that the Woodrow Wilson as President President seems believe of the United States was largely that the statesmen of the due to the votes of German- two opposing camps pursue Americans, and without their the same objects of wår. The assistanoe the Demoorats oan example of Belgium unforhardly expeot to win the

the tunately demonstrates that election which is imminent. It this is in no wise the fact. is equally clear that President Belgium has never, like the Wilson was 88 ignorant of the Central Powers, aimed at oonpolitioal conditions obtaining queste. The barbarous fashion in Europe, as were the allied in which the German Governstatesmen of the American ment has treated, and is still Constitution, and the Presi- treating, the Belgian nation,




does not permit the supposi- a position fairly to estimate tion that Germany will pre- the effeot which the League oooupy herself with guarantee- of Nations is likely to have ing in the future the rights upon Great Britain and her of the weak nations which Dominions, it is necessary not she has not oeased to trample only to consider the circumunder foot since the war, let stanoes under which the Coveloose by her, began to desolate nant was framed, and the Europe."

influences which determined Further, on December 30, the form which it took; we 1918, Mr Seoretary Daniels, must also study any precedent giving evidence before the there may be for a politioal Naval Affairs Committee, said, expedient so pretentions and “It is my firm oonviotion that far reaching, and the fate if the Peace Conference does which befell it. not result in a general agree- The politioal theory of the ment to put an end to naval interdependence of States had building on the part of all its origin far baok in the the nations, then the United beginnings of civilisation, and States must bend her will in the Amphictyonio Assembly and her energies, and most of the Greeks is found an early give her men and her money attempt to give it realisation. to the task of the creation But it was not until after the of incomparably the greatest Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, Navy in the world. She has which brought to a close the no designs upon the territory scourge of the Thirty Years' or the trade of any other War, that a school of thought, nation, or group of nations, of whom Grotius was the but she is pledged to support father, set itself the task of the Monroe dootrine. She is thinking out the means pledged to the protection of stabilising the inter-relationthe weak, wherever they may ship of European States. It suffer threats. If need be she pursued two lines of polioymust be inoomparably strong (1) to establish rules to wbich in defence against aggressors, all oivilised nations would give and in offence against evil. their consent and conform in doers.”

the conduot of war, as set out, At the very time that he 6.9., in the Treaty of Paris, was urging the Conference to 1856, and the later Conven. adopt the limitation of arma- tions of Geneva and the Hague; ments, President Wilson tele- (2) to establish a system which graphed to the Chairman of would prevent ruptures ooourthe Naval Affairs Committee, ring at all, and compel the dis“his gratitude and congrata- putants to refer their differlations on the Committee's ences to the arbitration of an unanimous report on the three international tribunal. It was years' Naval Programme.'

Programme.” in 1713 that such a system was Let the matter rest there! for the first time developed

Before, however, we are in by l’Abbé de St Pierre in his


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