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his theory of politios was had he not done his best to Bismarok's. .. . His principles weaken & dangerous neighfor the Peace can be ex- bour in pooket and opporpressed simply. In the first tunity. It is Mr Keynes's inplace, he was a foremost be- firmity that, being an interliever in the view of German nationalist in sentiment, he psychology that the German cannot perceive the justice understands nothing but in and the necessity of a Carthatimidation, that he is without ginian Peace. generosity, or remorse in And so he looked hopefully negotiation, that there is no for the coming of Mr Wilson, advantage he will not take of as to one who would bring you, that he is without honour, solace to a troubled world, and pride, or meroy. Therefore he was wofully disappointed. you must never negotiate with “With what ouriosity, anxiety, & German; you must dictate and hope," he exclaims dithy. to him." All this is perfectly rambically, "we sought true aboat Germany, and Mr glimpse of the features and Keynes's dispraise of M. bearing of the man of destiny Clemenceau is a eulogy of his who, coming from the West, olear-sightedness. Germany was to bring healing to the cannot be trusted, and no wounds of the ancient parent Frenchman could be trusted of his oivilisation and lay for who did not insist upon the us the foundations of the strongest guarantees, who was future. The disillusion was not resolate so effectively to so complete, that some of those weaken Germany that she who had trusted most hardly oould not for many a long year dared speak of it.” Mr make another sudden dash Keynes and his friends had, inacross the frontier. Had M. deed, formed a very wrong idea Clemenceau insisted upon less of the President. They had bethan he did, he would have lieved him to be self-willed and been no trae patriot. There obstinate; they found him unlies Germany, just across the determined, neither & soholar French frontier. She exceeds nor a student, a man without Franoe in wealth and popu. the oulture of the world, and lation. She has during the not at all sensitive to his enlast few years deliberately vironment. What could the destroyed the mines and fa- poor President do but play tories of Franoe, that she may blind - man's buff with MM. have the start in industrial Clemenceau

and George? recovery. She has destroyed “Never could a man,” says Mr Frenoh towns and blotted out Keynes, "have stepped into & generation of gallant French- the parlour a more perfect and men, Therefore, not only is predestined viotim to the finshe not entitled to any con- ished accomplishments of the sideration; but M. Clemenceau Prime Minister. The Old would have failed in his trust World was tough in wicked

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ness anyhow; the Old World's people overturned the foundaheart of stone migbt blunt the tions on which we all lived sharpest blade of the bravest and built.” That is all. Reknight-errant. But this blind proaches are hurled at the and deaf Don Quixote was Allies on many a page. Mr entering a cavern where the Keynes is very careful to beswift and glittering blade was little the harm done by our in the hands of the adversary.” enemies in the war. Writing For our part we are thankful of Belgium, he says: “The that it was.

Mr Wilson had first onrush of the Germans done Europe enough harm did some damage locally.” As with his fourteen points, to France, in some places she transmitted from Berlin by has gained by the conflict : way of Washington, before “The value of Calais and he came to these shores; Bonlogne must have been inand it was vastly to the creased by the new work of advantage of Europe that he various kinds executed for proved himself to be nothing the use of the British Army." more than a Nonoonformist As this new work would not minister.

have been done had not GerWhen Mr Keynes drops the many made its attack upon role of a man and an observer, Europe, perhaps France should and takes up that of an econ- be asked to pay an indemomist, he is less amusing and nity to Germany for value far more dangerous. He leaves received. out of the argument all such With whatever punishment human feelings as honour and is inflicted opon Germany be justice, and fills up the gaps quarrels. He objeots to the exwith figures. He detaches propriation of German owners himself completely from all in Alsace-Lorraine because the wholesome partisanship.

As mineral wealth of these proyfar as he is concerned, the inoes has been greatly develcountry to which he belongs oped since 1871, and because might not have been inter- German economic interests ested in the war. His one there are closely bound up with passion is to save Germany dis- interests in Germany itself. tress or inconvenience. "It is “Algace-Lorraine," we are told, only the Treaty's extreme im- “has been a part of the Germoderation," says he, “... man Empire for nearly fifty which may save the situation years—a considerable majority in the long-run.” “Save of its population is Germanthe situation," indeed! That speaking-and it has been the phrase shows where his sym- soene of Germany's most impathy lies. Only onoe has he portant economio enterprises.

single reproof for Ger- So might a barglar prove bis many. “Moved by insane de- right to his swag because he lusion and reckless self - re- had turned it to a profitable gard,” he writes, “the German use. Again, Mr Keynes thinks

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1920.] Mr Keynes?: Philanthropy and Absurd Remedies. 297 that the Germans will

Germans will be talks of our "imbecile greed.” harshly excluded from Egypt. Truly that groed would be “Not only are special privi- imbecile which set Germany leges renounced, but by Artiole on her logs again merely that 150 ordinary liberties are with- she might bring money into drawn, the Egyptian Govern- our coffers. ment being scoorded 'oomplete Whether Germany can or liberty of aotion in regulating oannot pay the just bill that the status of German nationals has been presented to her we and the oonditions under which do not know. That will be they may establish themselves discovered presently. When in Egypt.'” Has Mr Keynes Bismarok sent his account to forgotten the use which the France in 1871 he did not Germans made of their free make an inventory of her 860088 to Egypt before the goode. He thought that prowar, how they intrigued bably she could not pay what against the British and did he asked, and when she distheir best to stir up rebellion ? appointed him he wanted to We should be fools indeed if go to war again with her, we had not learned the lesson because he had not bled her of caution which they have enough. The settlement after taught us.

& war cannot and should not On another page he objeots be based upon philanthropy. to our control of the German We agree with Mr Keynes mines. “It is almost," says he, that the sight of the starving "as though the Powers of children of Germany is deContinontal Europe were to plorable.

We should agree be placed in a majority on with him more heartily if he the Thames Conservanoy or deplored with an equal sentithe Port of London." They ment the starvation of the would assuredly have been if children of Lille and other Germany had won; but Mr French towns. But Germany Keynes never admits into the has brought the suffering on account the purposes of Ger- herself and on the world, and many. Had the victory been she must still bear the responsihers, she would not have bility. That the sins of the troubled her mind about the fathers

are visited

the economic seourity of her ene- children unto the third and mies, She would have put fourth generation is not a the world under her feet, and piece of rhetorio, but a stern exaoted tribute from all those faot. upon whom, against their will, In the last chapter Mr she foroed the war. Nor is Keynes presents us with the there any other method of remedies which he himself bringing home to Germany would apply, were omnipothe enormity of her misdeeds tence his. In the first place, except punishment, condign he would oanoel all the debts

And Mr Keynes which still exist among the VOL, CCVII.—NO, MCCLII.

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Allies. If this be not done, once more to their advantage. then will France and England If once the Germans got into and the rest, denied by his Russia, no power on earth philanthropy any sufficient would ever get them out, and reparation from Germany, be their viotory would be comoompelled to pay interest plete. Their military expanand ospital until the end of sion would maroh, as always, time, because they have won with

with their industrial. The the war.

But since this sog. wealth of Russia would be gestion would involve

involve the their booty, and in a few United States in the greatest years

they would maroh loss, it is from the United undisturbed into India, and States that it must come. For destroy our influence in Egypt, the rest, bis remedies which their politicians have absurd enough to throw & always described as England's doubt upon the seriousness of spine. “It is our interest,' his book. He would fix the says Mr Keynes, “to hasten total payment to be made by the day when German agents Germany at 2000 millions. He and organisers will be in a would knook & quarter off this position to set in train in every for the surrender of merchant Russian village the impulses of ships and submarine oables. ordinary economio

economio motive." He would ask that the balance Then will the Kaiser or his should be exempt from interest, successor welcome the bagman's and should be paid in thirty millennium, and will take care annual instalments of fifty that conquered France and milliong, beginning in 19231 England take no share of the Thus Germany would be given profit. three years to find one quarter “I have paid little beed to of the sum which France found Austria, Hungary, and Russia," easily in 1871. And as Mr 8&ys Mr Keynes. He was 80 Keynes would abolish the Re- busy in writing his book to paration Committee, it is un- plead the cause of Germany likely that the second instal- that he had not space to touch ment would ever be paid. A apon the real wickedness of the better plan and more simple peace. The Allies, who should would be to endow Germany have aimed, as we said, at a for ever with all the money strong Austria, a strong Hunand raw materials which she gary, and & weak Germany, needs.

have made the strength and Lastly, he proposes that the weakness change places. They blookade should be raised in have not left Germany 80 Rassia, and that Germany happy and prosperous as Mr should be asked to revive Keynes would like to see it, Russian trade. Thus the mis- but they have left her with oreants, who for their own every opportunity of recovering profit inaugurated Bolshevism, & dangerous porition. They should be permitted to turn it have destroyed Hungary and

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Austria utterly. Cut off from alliances and commercial
the sea, stripped, on the foolish treaties. She must find mar-
plea of self-determination, of kets for her produce, and manu-
provinoes which were essential facturers from abroad who
to their livelihood, they are shall supply her with what she
to-day in a pitiable condition. needs. Shall she also be offered
We do not envy the ingenious up upon the altar of sacrifice
gentleman who invented the to Germany's rapacity? Shall
two new states, Czecho-Slov- she follow Russia, acoording to
akia and Jugo-Slavia. Their Mr Keynes's formula, into
oomposite names prove their the Teutonio maw?
oomposite characters. That There are many and sound
they will last long beneath reasons against such a polioy.
the fanciful masks which have In the first place, Hungary
been put upon them we do not has no longing for a olose-
believe. But at what a cost knit friendship with Germany,
will the theatrioal experiment especially after the bitter ex-
have been made! How many perience of the last five years.
lost lives will it have entailed ? For many years she has turned
How much misery and star. in the moments of her stress to
vation will it have brought England. In a little book,
with it! Bat pedantry must written by Mr Charles Sprox.
be served, and pedantry ton, a young scholar who was
has neither conscience nor killed in the war, you may
memory.

read how, after the revolution Take the case of Hungary, of 1848, it was Hungary's first for instance. Her share in the impulse to seek the aid of guilt of the war was small England. Palmerston refused enough. She was dragged by to see the Hungarian envoy, her neighbour inevitably into because he would not hurt the confliot. To-day her plight the susceptibilities of Austria, ig miserable enough. She has which he regarded as a wall been ravaged by the Rouma- against Russian aggression, nians; she has been butchered but the reception of Pulszky by Bolsheviks, whose baleful by the English has not yet rule she has been wide enough been forgotten, and the seeds and strong enough to discard. of friendebip then sown have And all the help or sympathy borne fruit. Once again which the Allies have tendered Hungary looks to us, and her has been to suggest that there is no reason why we the sentences of death, passed should not grasp her proffered upon the Jews, who murdered hand. From her rich agriouland tortured her citizens, should tural land she produces that be commuted! Yet some day of which we stand in need, Hangary will be foroed into and we are not without the

1,"Palmerston and the Hungarian Revolution,' by Charles Sproxton. Cambridge : At the University Press.

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