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dren of Israel, yI AM hath sent God of your fathers, the God of me unto you.
Abraham, the God of Isaac, and 15 And God said moreover unto the God of Jacob, hath sent me Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto unto you: this is z my name for the children of Israel, The LORD ever, and this is my memorial unto
y ch. 6. 3. John 8. 58. 2 Cor. 1. 20. Hebr. 13 8. Rev. 1. 4.
z Ps. 135. 13. Hos. 12. 5.
faithful performance of every promise € 58, . Before Abraham was, I am.' which he had uttered, so that whatever The expression is so strikingly paral. he had bound himself by covenant to lel, that we know not how to resist the do for Abraham, for Isaac, and for Ja- conclusion that there was a real though cob, he pledges himself by the annun- mysterious identity in the essential naciation of this august title to make the ture of the two speakers, so that whatsame good to their seed. “I am that ever was meant by Jehovah in saying (which) I will be, and I will be that to Moses, 'I am hath sent me to you,' (which) I am; the same yesterday, to the same was meant by the saying of day, and for ever.' We see then the Jesus, "Before Abraham was, I am.' purport of the passage. If they shal! And thus the Jews would appear to have ask, what is he? by what name is he understood it, for they immediately took known? what are the nature and attri- up stones to cast at him, as being guilty butes of him who, as thou sayest, has of the highest blasphemy in thus approsent thee to bring us out of Egypt? tell priating to himself the incommunicable them that thou art commissioned by name of God. him who describes his own nature by 15. This is my memorial unto all saying I AM THAT I AM; I am the eter- generations. Heb. 75T zikri. The nal, self-existent, and immutable Being; name or character by which I will be the only being who can say, that he al. remembered, celebrated, and invoked ways will be what he always has been.' in all time to come. Accordingly, in
-T I Am hath sent me unto you. allusion to this declaration, we have Heb. 1777* ehyeh, I will be ; a proper Hos. 12.5, 'Even the Lord (Jehovah) future, but having the force of the con- God of Hosts; the Lord (Jehovah) is tinuous present. The first person of his memorial.' Ps. 135, ' Thy name, O the verb of existence is here used as a Lord, (Jehovalı,) endureth for ever; noun substantive, and made the nomi- and thy memorial, O Lord, (Jehovah,) native to another verb in the third per- unto all generations. The words were son. This is indeed a striking gram- evidently adapted, as they were doubt. matical anomaly, but it arises out of less intended, to bring the chosen peothe nature of the subject. When God ple to a devout recognition of God as speaks of himself it is no matter of emphatically and pre-eminently the God wonder that he should disregard all of their race, and to wake up to more grammatical rules, for adequate expres- lively actings that faith which had be. sions come not within the compass of come dormant under the pressure of any language or any possible form of long continued affliction. speech. The Targ. of Jonathan thus tracted bondage, though it had not ut. feebly halts towards a fitting phrase- terly extinguished the light of the great ology, 'The That-was and Hereafter- truth respecting the divine Being and will-be hath sent me unto you.' And his perfections, yet had no doubt very here we cannot but be reminded of the much obscured it. They had lost the remarkable words of our Savior, John, practical sense of their covenant rela
16 Go, and a gather the elders of | b I have surely visited you, and seen Israel together, and say unto them, that which is done to you in Egypt: The Lord God of your fathers, the 17 And I have said, cI will bi ng God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of you up out of thi a Miction of Egadis Jacob, appeared unto me, saying,
b Gen. 50. 24, ch.2, 25. a c Gen, 15. 14, 16, ver. 8.
a ch. 4. 29.
tion to Jehovah, and yet as this was Moses in the first instance was com. the only true spring of all active faith, manded to go, and summon them tohope, and obedience, it was important gether to a general assembly, when he that they should be freshly instructed would announce to ihem the fact and on this head, and taught continually to the object of his mission. The release speak of and to trust in God as the God of Israel was to be demanded of the of their fathers, who would never be un- king in the general name of the whole faithful to his engagements. Moses, people, and this required the consent therefore, by reminding them of this and concurrence of the entire body of endearing title of the Most High, would their rulers, the proper organs of the be in fact furnishing them with a con- national voice. When they were in. stant memorial of their own mercies. formed of the fact and convinced of the
16. Gather the elders of Israel toge reality of Moses' mission, they would ther. Gr. Thv yepovolav twv viwv I sound, of course exert all their influence in the senate or eldership of the children preparing the people for the crisis be. of Israel ; not so much all the aged fore them.--I I have surely visited you men of the congregation of Israel, as and seen, &c. Heb. 19702 75 pakod the elders in office, the persons of prin- pakadti, visiting I have visited. That cipal note and influence in the tribes, is, I have so absolutely purposed and teachers and rulers; men who were decreed to deliver you from Egypt, that qualified by age, experience, and wis. it may be said to be already done. Al. dom, to preside over the affairs of the though the word seen' is supplied in nation, and who it appears were usually our version, it is not indispensably neemployed as organs of communication cessary to complete the sense, as the between Moses and the body of the import of the preceding verb includes people. Thus when Moses and Aaron the idea of judicial or penal risitation, are said, ch. 12. 3, to have been com. as well as merciful. To visit the doings manded to speak unto all the congre- of any one is plainly to punish them. gation of Israel, saying,' &c. we find The phrase therefore expresssively con. that in the account of the execution of veys the assurance of visiting the Is. this order, v. 21,' Moses called for all raelites in mercy and their oppressors the elders of Israel, and said unto them,' in judgment. &c. See Note on Gen. 24. 24, As 17. And I have said I will bring, &c. the distinction of tribes was undoubt. That is, I have resolved. See Note on edly kept up among the Israelites in Gen. 1. 3. The term “affliction here Egypt, and as it is clear from Num. 2, will appear very appropriate upon comand elsewhere, that each of the tribes paring this with the original promise had one or more presiding or ruling given to Abraham, Gen. 15. 13,' Know chiess called elders, who formed col- of a surety that thy seed shall be a vectively, at least in after times, the stranger in a land that is not theirs, and great counsel of the nation, it was to shall serve them; and they shall afflict these individuals, as the natural heads them four hundred years.' From this und representatives of the rest, that affliction they were now to be delivered
unto the land of the Canaanites, him, The LORD God of the Heand the Hittites, and the Amorites, brews hath fmet with us; and now and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, let us go (we beseech thee) three and the Jebusites, unto a land flow- day's journey into the wilderness, ing with milk and honey:
that we may sacrifice to the LORD 18 And d they shall hearken to thy our God. voice; and e thou shalt come, thou 19 4 And I am sure that the king and the elders of Israel, unto the of Egypt s will not let you go, no, king of Egypt, and ye shall say unto not by a mighty hand. d ch, 4, 31. e ch.5. 1, 3.
Numb, 23. 3, 4, 15, 16. & ch, 5, 2. & 7. 4. and in order to stimulate their minds token of the divine presence which had with the incentive of hope, the Most been manifested, and they say hath High recites a list of nations of whose met with us, though Moses alone had territories they were to come into pos. witnessed it, from his constructive iden. session, and lest moreover they should tity, as leader, with the people, and be discouraged by the recollection that from its having been vouchsafed for several of the patriarchs had been for their benefit as well as his. The Gr. merly driven out of that land by famine, and the Vulg. both render, 'hath called he gives them adequate assurance on
-1 Let us go three days' journey that head by telling them that it is 'a into the wilderness, &c. Neither Moses land flowing with milk and honey.' nor he in whose name he spoke, can be
18. And they shall hearken to thy voice. justly charged with falsehood or preva. That is, shall believingly and obedient- rication in uttering this language. The ly hearken. See Note on Gen. 16. 2. utmost that can be alleged is, that he This assurance on the part of God was did not tell the whole truth, and this it peculiarly seasonable and precious. cannot be shown that he was bound to The Israelites had been so long de do. See on this subject the Nore on pressed and dispirited by their bond. Gen. 12. 13. The command to make age, that they would naturally be slow this request of Pharaoh shows, that it to entertain any thoughts of deliver. may sometimes be the way of true wis. ance, and a cordial willingness to use dom to seek that as a favor, which the means, encounter the difficulties, may at the same time he claimed as a and face the dangers requisite for that right. purpose, could only be effected by a 19. I am sure that the king of Egypt powerful divine influence on their hearts; will not let you go. Heb. DOON 177*3 and that influence God here engages to 7323 10 yitten ethkem lahalok, will not put forth. Such an assurance is the give you to go. See Note on Gen. 20. 6. grand encouragement of ail good men God announces beforehand that their engaged in declaring useful and saving first application will be unavailing, in truths or commanding laborious duties order that they may not be disheartened to their fellow men. Their best words by the repulse, and give up the enter. will be unregarded, their utmost efforts prise as hopeless. Let it not be thought, will fail, unless the Lord himself infuse however, derogatory to the divine glory a vital efficacy into them, and give thus to send men advisedly upon a boot. the hearing ear and the yielding heart less errand; for the result would tend far to their auditors.--- The Lord God more strikingly to illustrate the equity of the Hebrews hath met with us. Heb. of the subsequent proceedings of provi. 0772 nikrah, has been made to occur. dence in extorting, with tremenvious The allusion is plainly to the visible ) judgments, that which had been unjustly
20 And I will h stretch out my / and it shall come to pass, that, hand, and smite Egypt with iall when ye go, ye shall not go empty: my wonders which I will do in the 22 m But every woman shall bormidst thereof: and kafter that he row of her neighbour, and of her will let you go
that sojourneth in her house, jewels 21 And 1 I will give this people fa- of silver, and jewels of gold, and raivour in the sight of the Egyptians; ment: and ye
put hrh. 6. 6. & 7.5. & 9, 15, ich. 7, 3, & 11.9, your sons, and upon your daughters; Deut. 6. 22. Neh. 9, 10. Ps. 105. 27. & 135. 9. and nye shall spoil the Egyptians.
m Gen, 15. 14. ch. 11, 2, & 12. 35, 36, D Job
Jei, 32, 20, Acts 7, 36, See ch. 7. to ch, 13, kch, 12, 31, Ich, 11, 3, & 12, 36. Ps, 106, 46. Prov, 16, 7,
Prov, 13, 22. Ezek, 39, 10,
and impiously withheld. As the request rity and vigor. He not only assures was in itself simple and reasonable, his them of liberty, but of riches. But this refusal to comply with it would disclose could be accomplished only by turning his real character, and show how truly the hostile hearts of the Egyptians to a he and his people deserved all the wrath posture of clemency and generosity, that they were afterwards made to feel. and this he engages to do. The words, - No, not by a mighty hand. That however, ‘I will give this people favor,' is, he will at first resist and rebel, not are not to be understood as intimating withstanding all the demonstrations of that he would conciliate towards them my great power against him; but at the affection of their enemies. Unlength he shall yield, as is declared in doubtedly the reverse of this was the the next verse. Or it may be rendered, case, particularly at the time when the with the Gr. and Vulg. "Unless by a promised favor was shown them ; for strong hand.'
they were then trembling for their lives 20. And I will stretch out mine hand, under the repeated inflictions of the &c. Heb. 8737 veshalahti, and I will plagues; but the meaning is, that God send out. Chal. “And I will send the would so overrule their dispositions tostroke of my strength.' The connective wards his people that they should be. particle 7 and may as properly here be stow upon them marked expressions of rendered but or therefore, as if the de- favor, they should be induced to treat sign were to point to the opposition them as if they loved them, though in which God was to make to Pharaoh's reality they hated them as the procur resistance; or to indicate the reason of ing cause of all their troubles. Such an his stretching forth his hand ; (There absolute control over the fiercest spirits fore will I stretch forth my hand, be of the enemies of his church shows that cause Pharaoh will not yield to my de. when God allows them to rage it is for mand without-it. I will see whose hand the wisest purposes of discipline to his is the stronger, his or mine.'
people. As he could soften them in a 21. I will give this people favor in moment, if he does not do so, it is the sight of the Egyptians. Here again because he sees it better that license we perceive that God has his eye upon should be afforded them for a season. the ancient promise, Gen. 15. 14, ' And 22. Every woman shall borrow of her also that nation whom they shall serve, neighbor, &c. Heb. 1380 shaalah. will I judge: and afterward shall they shall ask. For a somewhat extended come out with great substance.' He view of the moral character of this aliures his people by an accumulation transaction see Note on Ex. 12.35. We of promises, that they may engage in shall there see that when God com. the work before them with more aląc. 1 manded the Israelites to possess them
lieve me, nor hearken unto my
A , Lor?
But, behold, they will not be- hath not appeared unto thee. selves of the jewels and raiment of stranger. The implication would seem their enemies, and to spoil' them, they to be, that the Egyptians in some cases did not take them by rapine and stealth, occupied tenements which belonged to but as spoils voluntarily given up to the Israelites, or at any rate that they them by the Egyptians; in a word, that lived very closely intermingled toge. there is no ground in the import of the ther, a circumstance which gave them a original for accusing the Israelites of better opportunity to despoil their opfraud or injustice. Without anticipat. pressors of their effects.- Jewels ing the fuller canvassing the subject of silver and jewels of gold. Heb. 35 which we there propose, we may here kelë.“ The present rendering no doubt remark, that the term borrow' has restricts too much the meaning of the been somewhat unhappily adopted in original, which properly includes vesour translation, as it implies a promise sels, implements, utensils, of any kind of return. But this is not the sense of made of gold or silver. The term is the original 380 shaal. This signifies here equivalent to valuable effects. to ask, demand, petition, request, and These they were to put upon their is the very word employed Ps. 2. 8, sons and upon their daughters,' by • Ask (3x3 sheal) of me the heathen which would naturally be understood for thine inheritance,' &c.; although in from our translation, that they were to two passages, Ex. 22. 14, and 2 Kings, put them upon their children as orna6.5, it cannot perhaps be doubted that ments. But would the sons wear female its import is that of borrowing. But for ornaments? A much more probable borrow in the more strict and genuine supposition is, that they were to lay sense of the word, the Heb. has entirely them upon the young people as a buranother term 1773 lavah, which occurs den to be carried. If the original term among other places, Deut. 28. 12, “Thou meant nothing but jewels, the former shalt lend unto many nations, and thou interpretation would no doubt be enshalt not borrow (777377 hilvitha): tirely plausible. But we have seen that Neh. 5. 4, "There were also that said, it includes every kind of gold and silver We have borrowed (73773 lavinu) articles. They were therefore put upon money for the king's tribute. Prov. 22. their sons and daughters, not to be 7, The borrower (17737a malveh) is worn, but to be carried. servant to the lender. Is. 24. 2, ' And t shall be, as with the lender, so with
CHAPTER IV. the borrower (1773 na malveh). '
1. Moses answered and said, But be. her that sojourneth in her house. Heb. hold, they will not believe me. Heb. 769) han miggarath bethah. Gr. 777 ve-hen, and behold.
The Gr. we ovornvov avrns, her fellow-dweller. Chal. incline to believe has the most correct From her who is a near neighbor to rendering sav, if, making it a hypotheti her house.' But this is not an exact cal instead of an absolute affirmation o. rendering of the Heb. nor does it differ Moses. Thus too the Arab, 'Perhaps sufficiently from the preceding term. they will not believe me. The original The original properly signifies an in- term is expressly so rendered, Jer. 3. 1, dweller, as in Job, 19. 15, · They that They say if (77 hen) a man put dwell in mine house (9) ma garë away his wife, and she go from him,' hëthi), and my maids count me for a l&c. It cannot indeed be questioned