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43 | And the LORD said unto Mo-1.48 And, when a stranger shall soses and Aaron, This is fthe ordi- journ with thee, and will keep the nance of the passover: there shall passover to the LORD, let all his no stranger eat thereof:

males be circumcised, and then let 44 But every man's servant that him come near and keep it; and is bought for money, when thou he shall be as one that is born in hast & circumcised him, then shall the land : for no uncircumcised he eat thereof.

person shall eat thereof. 45 h A foreigner, and a hired ser 49 m One law shall be to him that vant, shall not eat thereof.

is home-born, and unto the stranger 46 In one house shall it be eaten; that sojourneth among you. thou shalt not carry forth aught of 50 Thus did all the children of the flesh abroad out of the house: Israel; as the LORD commanded i neither shall ye break a bone Moses and Aaron, so did they. thereof.

51 n And it came to pass the self47 k All the congregation of Israel same day, that the LORD did bring shall keep it.

the children of Israel out of the

land of Egypt • by their armies. I Numb. 9. 14. & Gen, 17. 12, 13. h Lev. 22.

i Numb. 9. 12. John 19, 33, 36. k ver. 6. Numb. 9, 14. m Numb. 9. 14. & 15. 15, 16.

Numb. 9. 13.

Gal. 3. 28.

n ver. 41.

och, 6. 26.

accounted peculiarly memorable, bring- were excluded on account of its preemi. ing with it the recollection of an event nent sanctity. never to be forgotten, and awakening 46. In one house shall it be eaten. sentiments of unfeigned gratitude to That is, each paschal lamb was to be their Almighty Deliverer.

eaten by the requisite company or num. 43. The Lord said. Rather, “the ber, and consequently not divided into Lord had said, probably on the same two or more parts to be eaten in differ. occasion as that on which he instituted ent houses, but all that ate of it were to the Passover; at any rate, at some time eat together in one house. This was previous to the departure from Egypt. for the sake of fellowship, that they

-1 There shall no stranger eat there might rejoice together, and edify one of. That is, while he continues a another while eating of it. Chal. 'In stranger or alien, unproselyted and un one society shall ye eat it.'- Nei. circumcised. By parity of reasoning it ther shall ye break a bone thereof. is to be supposed that all who had prov. There is soinething in this precept ed themselves apostate from their re- which doubtless has a prospective reser. ligion were in like manner to be inter- ence to Christ our Passover, of whom dicted.

the Evangelist tells us, Jonn, 19. 33–36, 45. A foreigner. Heb. Ju7h toshab, that his legs were providentially pre. a dueller, an inhabitant. This was a vented from being broken, in order that term applied to those pious gentiles the Scriptures might be fulfilled, A bone who, without embracing the Jewish re- of him shall not be broken.' So the ligion, renounced idolatry and took up. Psalmist, Ps. 34. 20. 'He keepeth all their abode with the chosen people- his bones; not one of them is broken.' a privilege which was not allowed to 49. One law shall be to him, &c. The foreigners who still continued idolaters. enlarged and liberal spirit of the He. Maimonides observes of such persons, brew system appears very strikingly in that they might dwell in any part of Ju- these regulations. Any stranger might dea except Jerusalem, from which they I be incorporated ivto the nation by con.

forming to the rites of their religion, engaged to spare. How then shall the and thereby become entitled to all the distinction be made between them and privileges of the native-born Jew. In the careless, godless world, who mock order to this, it was proper that they at and neglect the warnings and denun. should make themselves debtors to the ciations of heaven? The Israel of God law in its burthens, for in God's econo- is composed of fallen, guilty creatures, my privileges and duties always go to who are by nature the children of wrath, gether. The provision was calculated even as others. In themselves conat the same time to afford hope to the sidered they do not deserre exemption, Gentile and to moderate the self-com- and are placed in the pathway of the placency of the Israelite.

divine anger, as the dwellers in Goshen REMARKS.-A positive institution so would have been, if they had remained directly from heaven, and one so closely unmarked for safety. But lo! the Pas. connected by typical relations with an chal Lamb is slain! The Lord Christ event of infinitely greater importance, by his one oblation of himself once as the Passover, may well be supposed offered, makes a full, perfect, and suffi. to be fraught with a richness of moral cient sacrifice and satisfaction for the import demanding the most serious at- sins of the whole world. He lays down tention.

his life for the sheep. They are sprin1. The ordinance may be viewed in kled by his blood, sealed by his spirit, reference to the discriminating circum- and interested by faith in the blessings stances in which it was established. of his covenant. When the Lord there. God was now about to make a terrible fore proceeds to execute judgment upon display of his righteous indignation. impenitent transgressors, he views them The destroying angel had, as it were, as they are in Christ Jesus, looks in received his commission, and stood pre- mercy towards them, and saves them pared to pass through Egypt. But a from eternal death. Would we avoid people in covenant with the Lord, and the doom?-let us have recourse to the to whom his mercy was promised ; who remedy. The blood of the lamb did had avouched him for their God, and not save the Israelites by being shed, cried to him for deliverance, were min- but by being sprinkled. In the same gled with the multitude of Egypt; and manner, it is not the blood of Christ as amid the terrors of the approaching shed on Calvary, but as sprinkled on the desolation, how could they escape ? soul, that saves us from the wrath to Some mode must be devised by which come. We must, as it were, dip the .he angel, as he went his midnight hyssop in the blood, and by faith apply round of death, might know that the it to our own hearts and consciences, or Lord had put a difference between the we can have no benefit from it, no in. Egyptians and Israel ; so that while one terest in it. was smitten, the other might be left in 2. We may consider the essential safety. A lamb therefore was to be qualities of the victim, and the manner slain; its blood to be sprinkled upon in which it was to be treated. (1.) It the lintels and side-posts of their doors; was to be a lamb, the most innocent and the Lord promised that when he and gentle of all animals in the idea saw the blood, he wculd stay the plague and language of all nations, but another from destroying them. In like manner name for gentleness, harmlessness, and the sentence of death has gone forth simplicity. This meek and unresisting against an ungodly world. But in the creature was to be early removed from midst of its condemned transgressors its fond mother's side, deprived of lib. there is a covenant people whom he has I erty, and destined t bleed by the sacri,

ficing knife. Who can chink of its plain- of God, who are 'one body, one spirit, tive bleating during the days of separa- and are called in one hope of their calltion, without emotion? What Israel. ing ;' who have one Lord, one faith, itish heart so insensible as not to be one baptism.' melted at the thought, that his own 3. We may consider the attendant cirlife, and the comfort of his family, were cumstances of the institution. (1.) The to cost the life of that inoffensive little passover was to be eaten with unleavcreature whom he had shut up for the ened bread and bitter herbs. The herbs slaughter, and which, in unsuspecting were meant primarily to awaken the confidence, licked the hand listed to remembrance of the bitter bondage to shed its blood ? (2.) It was to be a lamb which they had been subject in Egypt; of the first year, and without blemish but besides this they were intended to If it bore the mark of any deformity, show the necessity of penitence for sin, or even of any defect, it would have and to shadow forth the hardships and been a forbidden sacrifice, as well as a trials which await along the chequered victim unfit to represent the Lamb slain path of the Lord's pilgrims in their for sinners from the foundation of the journey to the Canaan of rest. And it world. How beautiful is the harmony is as impossible spiritually to partake between the type and the antitype ! of Jesus Christ, the Paschal Lamb of "We are redeemed with the precious our salvation, without abiding godly blood of Christ, as of a lamb without sorrow for sin, and a sacred resolve to blemish and without spot. (3.) It was take up our cross and bear it cheerfully to be set apart four days before it was in the trials of life, as it is to bring slain ; not only to mark the previous light and darkness, east and west todesignation of Christ, to be a sacrifice, gether. Equally impossible is it to but perhaps also, as has been suggested, partake of the mercies of the Son of to foreshow that he should, during the God, while the leaven of any iniquity four last days of his life, be examined is indulged and cherished within our at different tribunals to ascertain whe- hearts. Let not Demas imagine that ther there was the smallest flaw in his he may embrace the world, and hold character, that so his bitterest enemies the Savior. Let not Ananias and Sap. might all be constrained to attest his phira suppose that they may keep back innocence, and thereby unwittingly to any part of that which they have sol declare, that he was fit to be a sacrifice emnly dedicated to God, and yet be his for the sins of the whole world. (4.) true friends and servants. Let every one When slain and prepared, the lamb was that nameth the name of Christ, as the to be eaten by all the Israelites at the refuge of his soul, depart from iniquity. same time, and by each party in one As the scrupulous Israelites searched house. The victim was slain for all, with lighted candles every hidden corbecause all were partners in the same ner and dark recess of their houses for danger, and all were to be indebted to the any latent particle of leaven, so let our same mode of deliverance. And it was language be, 'Search ine, O God, and not to be divided and carried to differ- know my heart; try me, and ent houses, when two households joined thoughts, and see if there be any

wicked in one lamb, in order to keep up the way in me, and lead me in the way idea of unity in the general observance everlasting. (2.) It was to be eaten of the ceremony. The nation appears, in a standing posture with their loins therefore, in the paschal solemnity as a girded, their shoes on their feet, and beautiful and instructive representation their staves in their hands, ready to de. of the great, united, harmonious family part at a moment's warning. These


2 a Sanctify unto me all the first.

a'ver. 12. 13, 15. ch. 22. 29, 30. & 34. 19 AND the Lord spake unto Mo

Lev. 27. 20. ,

Numb. 3. 13. & 8. 16, 17. & 18

15. Deut. 15. 19. Luke 2. 23. were to them memorial circumstances, brance of that remarkable event, and in connected with the haste and sudden- token of their gratitude for it, their firstness of their exit. But to us they speak born, in all ages, were to be consecrated an emphatic language ; “Arise ye and to God as his peculiar portion, and if depart, for this is not your rest.' 'Here re-appropriated to themselves, it could we have no abiding city, but look for only be done on the ground of certain one to come.' "Now we desire a better redemptions prescribed in v. 13. country, even an heavenly.' 'Arise, 2. Sanctify unto me all the first-born, and let us go hence.' (3.) Not a bone &c. Let them be set apart, consecrated of the paschal lamb was to be broken. hallowed to me. See the import of the The primary moral drift of the injunc- term more fully explained in the Note tion seems to be, that what has once on Gen. 2. 3. God, as the universal been offered to God is not to be unne. Creator, is of course the universal Processarily disfigured or mangled. The prietor of all his creatures, and might blood must be shed, for that was the justly lay claim to the most absolute seal of the covenant; the flesh might and unreserved dedication of all the probe eaten for it was given for the sus geny of men and brutes to himself. But tenance of man's lite; hut the bones in the present case he was pleased to formning no part either of food or sacri- restrict this more peculiar sanctification fice, were to be left in their original to the first-born, as being especially his state till consumed by fire with the re on the ground of their protection and mainder of the flesh, if any remained, exemption from the destroying judgin the morning. At the same time we ment which had swept off the first-born cannot doubt that there was an ulterior of the Egyptians. As he had in this fact allusion in this commanded circum- shown to them a distinguishing mercy, stance of the paschal rite. “But when he was pleased to make it the occasion the soldiers came to Jesus, and saw that of a standing acknowledgment to that he was dead already, they broke not his effect on the part of his people. As he egs.' It is clear from what follows, had spared their first-born, who were that the Evangelist regarded the pre- the joy, the hope, and the stay of their cept of the law as a prophecy of Christ; families, so it was fitting, as an evidence 'For these things are done that the of their grateful love to their heavenly Scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of benefactor, that they should recognise him shall not be broken ;' as if a special as paramount his title to what he had Providence had watched over the cruci- graciously spared them, and should fixion of the Savior to secure his sacred cheerfully resign to him who is. First person from maiming, and thus bring and Best, what was dearest and most about the fulfilment of the prediction. valuable to themselves. And it is by

this test that we are to determine the CHAPTER XIII.

measure of our love to God. Does he i. And the Lord spake unto Moses. stand so high in our affections that we From v. 15, it would appear that this are willing for his sake to part with precept was founded upon the fact of what we love best in this world? It is the preservation of Israel's first-born only by losing sight of all the claims of when the first-born of the Egyptians infinite beneficence, and becoming deaf were slain. To pe “petuate the remem. to the dictates of every tender and gen

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born, whatsoever openeth the house of bondage; for c by strength womb among the children of Is- of hand the LORD brought you out rael, both of man and of beast: it from this place : d there shall no is mine.

leavened bread be eaten. 3 | And Moses said unto the peo 4 e This day came ye out, in thus ple, bRemember this day, in which month Abib. ye came out from Egypt, out of the

2 ch. 23. 15. & 34

c ch. 6. 1. d ch. 12. 8. 18. Deut. 16. 1.

b ch. 12. 42. Deut. 16. 3.

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erous emotion, that we can suffer our grading bondage ; for which reason they selves to offer to the Most High the are said elsewhere to have been brought blind, the maimed, or the halt for sacri- forth from the furnace of iron ;' Deut. fice, or to serve him with that which 4. 20. 1 Kings, 8.51. Jer. 11.4.costs us nothing. In accordance with strength of handy &c. Heb. Ta pina this character of sanctity pertaining to behozek yad. As God had previously the first-born, the redeemed in heaven announced to Moses, Ex. 3. 19, 'I am are called 'the church of the first-born,' sure that the king of Egypt will not let and Christ himself is the first-born you go, no, not by a strong hand (773 among many brethren.' We find indeed lapin beyad hazakah), where the ac. that at a subsequent period, Num. 3. 12, companying note shows that the meanithe divine Lawgiver saw fit to ordain a ing is, except or unless by a strong hand. commutation, by which one whole tribe As the original term is the same as that out of the twelve came into the room of applied in several instances to the hard. the first-born of every tribe, as an order ening of Pharaoh's heart (see Note on of priests to minister to him in holy Ex. 4, 21.), there is a tacit antithetical althings, which was otherwise one of the lusion to that event, implying that howrights of primogeniture; and at any ever hard or strong the impious king time the privilege of redemption was made his heart, God made his hand still allowed in certain terms, Num. 18. 15– stronger. This is one of tliose nice 17; but neither of these provisions were shades of meaning which cannot well to operate in such a way as to weaken be conveyed in a translation. See Nole the force of the moral considerations on Ex. 12. 33. T There shall no connected with the ordinance.

leavened bread be eaten. This mode of 3. Remember this day, &c. Heb. rendering overlooks the true syntactical zakor, which has the import not mere structure of the sentence, which is to ly of mental recollection, but of actual be read thus ; ‘Remember this day in celebration, or of some kind of public which ye came out from Egypt, out of proceeding which should serve as a the house of bondage ; for by strength perpetuating memorial of a particular of hand the Lord brought you out of event. See Note on Ex. 20. 8. The this place (so) that there should no unreason of this was not merely the favor leavened bread be eaten ;' i.e.under such shown to them in such a signal deliver circumstances as gave rise to the ordiance, but the display it involved of the nance that no unleavened bread should divine interposition, and obviously the be eaten. more of God and of his power there is in 4. In the month Abib. That is, in the any deliverance, the more memorable month of green corn, which is the true it is.- 9 Out of the house of bondage. import of the word Abib. The Chaldee Heb. 6779 nan mibbeth abadim, out name of this month was Nisan, corres. of the house of servants ; i. e. from a ponding to part of our March and part condition of the most severe and de- l of April. See Note on Ex. 9. 31. Gr.

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