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7 | d And the children of Israel | exceeding mighty; and the land were fruitful, and increased abun- was filled with them. dantly, and multiplied, and waxed 8 Now there earose up a new dGen. 46.3. Deut. 26.5. Ps. 105. 24. Acts 7.17.

e Acts 7. 18.

7. Were fruitful. Heh. 795 paru, a other, but xalvos, new. It probably imterm often applied to the vigorous fructi- plies a king of another race, of a differfication of trees and plants, and implying ent dynasty, one who came to the here that none of the Israelitish women throne, not by regular succession, but were barren ; they began early and con- in consequence of intestine revolution tinued long in bearing, and not unfre- or foreign conquest. This interpretaquently perhaps brought forth more tion seems to be warranted by the anal. ihan one at a birth. Gr. nužnonoav, were ogous usage of the word 'new' in the augmented. Increased abundantly. following and numerous other passages; Heb. 1709 yishretzu, bred swiftly, Deut. 32. 17, "They sacrificed unto like fishes, or reptiles. See Note on devils, not to God; to gods whom they Gen. 1. 20. Gr. elnövvonoav, were mul- knew not, to new gods that came newly tiplied. Vulg. 'Quasi germinantes mul- up ;' i. e. to strange gods, to exotic tiplicati sunt,' as it were springing up deities. Judg. 5. 8, “They chose new were multiplied. - Multiplied. Heb. gods ;' i. e. other or strange gods, the 7279 yirbu, became numerous. Gr. gods of the heathen. So Mark, 16. 17, xvdaloi eyevovto, became diffusely abund. They shall speak with new tongues ;' ant. - Waxed exceeding mighty. i.e. with foreign tongues, the languages Heb. 72279yaatzmu, became strong. of other people. The informations of Gr. kario xvov, prevailed. The accumu- profane history on this point are exlation of these nearly synonimous terms ceedingly vague and meagre, but it is gives the utmost intensity to the wri- contended by some writers, that it was ter's meaning, and conveys the idea of about this time that Egypt was invaded amazing and unparalleled increase. and occupied by a powerful Asiatic This is elsewhere abundantly confirm- people, whose rulers formed the dyed. It was 430 years from the call of nasty of shepherd-kings, of whom so Abraham to the deliverance from Egypt, much is said in Manetho, Herodotus, during the first 215 of which the pro- and others. Josephus also (Ant. L. II. mised seed increased to but 70 souls, c. 9. § 1.) expressly affirms that the but during the latter half of the same Israelites were oppressed by the Egypperiod these 70 were multiplied, Num. tians after the death of Joseph, the 1. 46, to 600,000 fighting men; and if government having been transferred to to these we add the women, the child- another family.' But even were this ren, and the aged, the whole number point involved in far less obscurity than probably amounted to upwards of two it is, it would comport but little with millions ! Well then does the psalmist our plan to enter into its discussion. say, Ps. 105. 24, that'he increased his Matters of mere historical interest, of people greatly, and made them stronger which the Scriptures say nothing, come than their enemies.' See also Deut. rather within the province of the anti26.5.

quarian than of the commentator. 8. There arose up a new king over Which knew not Joseph. That is, Egypt. Gr. aveotn Basilevs étepos, there who regarded not, who appreciated not. arose up another king. This rendering A like phraseology occurs Judg. 2. 10, is somewhat remarkable, as the literal 'And there arose another generation translation of 375 is not érepos, ano / which knew not the Lord, neither the

king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph.

9 And he said unto his people, Behold, fthe people of the children

f Ps. 105. 24.

works which he had done for Israel.' | as if he did not know him.' It is doubt That is, which did not gratefully ac- less to be set down to the account of an knowledge the Lord, or his various exemplary modesty in Joseph that no works of mercy towards them. The more effectual means had been adopted memory of the name and services of so to secure among the Egyptians the eminent a benefactor could not but have abiding memory and acknowledgment been preserved among the nation, and of his great services to that people. must, as a matter of report, have come Had he been of an aspiring spirit covetto the ears of the king, but it is a pe- ous of present or posthumous fame; culiarity of words of knowledge, in the had he sought great things for himself Hebrew, that they imply also the exer or his kindred, we cannot question but cise of the affections. Thus, Ps. 1. 6, that monuments and various other me. The Lord knoweth the way of the morials would have transmitted his righteous,' i.e. loveth. Ps. 31.7,' Thou name to posterity as an illustrious benehast known my soul in adversities ;' factor of his adopted country. But no i.e. thou hast tenderly regarded. Prov. prompting of this nature appears to 24. 23, 'It is not good to have respect have swayed the bosom of Joseph. As of persons in judgment.' Heb.' to know his hopes were fixed upon the posses. persons. Job. 34. 19, 'How much less sion of the promised inheritance, he to him that accepteth not the persons seems to have accounted it sufficient of princes, nor regardeth the rich more simply to enjoy, for the time being, the than the poor. Heb. nor knoweth the hospitality of a foreign prince, till the rich. It was probably in this sense destined period of removal should arthat the new king is said not to have rive, without multiplying the ties which known Joseph, and this is less to be would then have to be broken. But wondered at if, as suggested above, he just in proportion as he was little anxwas of a foreign nation and another ious and aspiring on this score, was the dynasty. The Chal. renders it,' Who ingratitude and forgetfulness of the confirmed not the decree of Joseph,' Egyptians the more culpable. It is only i. e. according to Fagius, either that the basest spirit of the world that will he totally disregarded all the ordinances take occasion, from the lowliness of and enactments which Joseph had orig- the claims of an eminent public servant, inated, and introduced universal inno- to bury in speedy oblivion the rememvation; or that he utterly broke through brance of his services. Yet his was all the compacts and covenants existing but the lot of thousands, whose noblest between Joseph as the representative benefactions to their fellow men have of Israel, and the Pharaoh who then been repaid with the most ungrateful filled the throne, and began cruelly to neglect. The poor man by bis wisdom oppress a people whom his predecessor delivereth the city, yet no man remem. had sworn to protect and befriend. Both bereth that same poor man. Could we the Targum of Jonathan and that of find a national conscience, we might Jerusalem adhere to the former sense ; look for national gratitude. (Who considered not Joseph, nor walk 9. He said unto his people. This ed in his statutes. The comment of people in the persons of their representRabbi Solomon probably brings us still atives, his counsellors. - Behold, nearer to the true sense, 'Who acted the people of the children of Israel. Heb.

of Israel are more and nightier | it come to pass, that, when there than we.

falleth out any war, they join also 10 s Come on, let us h deal wisely unto our enemies, and fight against with them, lest they multiply, and us, and so get them up out of the s Ps. 10. 2. & 83. 3, 4. h Job. 5. 13. Ps. 105. land.

25. Prov. 16. 25. & 21. 30.

Acts. 7. 19.

6

4709 nga by am benë Yisrael. This subtlety, wiliness, and in Ps. 105. 20, in is rendered in most of the ancient ver- reference to this very event, we find the sions as in ours; but Aben Ezra re- equivalent term 350 hithnakkel, from marks, with undoubted correctness, that 353 to contrive deceitfully or insidiousby people is not here in the constructly, ' He turned their hearts to hate his state, but in apposition with a child people, to deal subtilely with his serve ren, so as to require the rendering,' the ants. The wisdom here proposed to be people, the children of Israel.' A dis- employed was the wisdom of the sertinctive and not conjunctive accent is" pent; but with men of reprobate minds, placed upon people. - More and governed solely by the corrupt spirit of mightier. Heb. D779737 rab ve-atzum, this world, whatever measures tend to many and mighty beyond us. They had promote their own interests and cir. become mightier by becoming more ; cumvent their opponents, is dignified that is, not perhaps absolutely more ; by the epithet wise, though it be found not so as to outnumber the population when judged by a purer standard, to be of all Egypt; but more in proportion in reality nothing less than the very to the space occupied ; more within any policy of hell. So easily is language given limits. “He speaks,' says Trapp, perverted, and made a sanction for the as if he had looked through a multi- most iniquitous proceedings. - Lest plying glass ;' and it is scarcely extrav- they multiply, &c. That is, lest they agant to say, that such a multiplying continue to multiply, and become more glass was in fact the promise given to and mightier still. It is obvious, howAbraham. By others, the words have ever, that the mere multiplication of been regarded as a false pretext for re- the Israelites was no just ground of ducing the Israelites to bondage. But alarm, so long as they were well used this we think less probable.

and no provocation given them to turn 10. Let us deal wisely with them. against the people with whom they Heb. 73 nasan nithhakkemah lo, let dwelt. They were a peaceful race of us deal wisely against him (collect. shepherds, who looked upon themselves sing. for plur.); i. e. cunningly, craft- as mere temporary sojourners in Egypt, ily; let us devise some method of op- and who would therefore be the last to pressing them, of preventing their enor- engage in plots and insurrections against mous increase, and at the same time the government. The promises given avoid the show of oppression and down them by God, and the hopes which they right tyranny, and the danger arising entertained as a nation, were the strongfrom their great physical force. Gr.kara est security which the Egyptians could owocowpea, let us outwit them. Vulg. have that nothing was to be apprehend. Sapienter opprimamus eum, let us wisely ed from them on the score of rebellion. oppress him (them). Chal. • Let us Indeed, a nation so evidently favored of deal wisely against them. The original Heaven, instead of being regarded as a term bn hakam, is used for the most source of danger, could not but prove a part in a good sense for acting wisely, bulwark of defence to the country, if skilfully, prudently, yet it occasionally treated as friends. But the wicked fear carries with it the import of cunning, where no fear is, and when intent upop

VOL. I

2

1! Therefore they did set over with their k burdens. And they them taskmasters, ito afflict them built for Pharaoh treasure-cities,

Pithom, land Raamses. 1 Gen. 15. 13. ch, 3. 7. Deut. 26. 6. k ch. 2. 11. & 5. 4,5. P: 81.6. 1 Gen. 47.11.

oppression or wrong they will feign oc- thy words unto my taste;' i. e. all and casions for it, and pretend the existence singular of thy words. Prov. 28. 1, 'The in others of the same evil purposes wicked flee when no man pursueth ;' i.e. which they cherish themselves. Look the wicked, one and all, flee. So also ing through the flimsy veil with which 1 Tim. 2. 15, Notwithstanding she shail their real motives were covered, we see be saved in child-bearing, if they conplainly that hatred of their religion, tinue in faith, and charity, and holiness.' envy at their prosperity, and a covetous 11. Set over them task-masters, or, desire of possessing their riches, prompt. tax-gatherers. Heb. 972 773 33 799 6097 ed the oppressors of Israel to these ne- bron va-yasimu alauv sarë missim, farious counsels. But it should not be and they placed over him (collect. sing.) forgotten on the other hand, that the masters of burdens. The original is truly wise counsels of God in reference frequently used to denote tribute, but to his own people lay deeper than those here, and occasionally elsewhere, it of their enemies. It is clear from vari. doubtless has the sense of tasks, bur. ous intimations in the sacred writers, dens, onerous services, such as were as Josh. 24. 14. Ezek.20.5—8, and 23. 8, probably imposed upon those who could that the chosen people were beginning not or would not pay the appointed to lapse into the idolatry of Egypt, tribute. The term therefore which priwhich justly subjected them to the hard- marily signified tribute was employed ships which they were now made to en- to denote its substitute or equivalent dure; and the train of events was now service. Gr. EpyuV ETLOTATAS, masters of also to be laid which was to result in works. Chal.' Princes or prefects evil. their deliverance from the house of entreating (them). Syr. "Worst of bondage. Their covenant God had a rulers.' Targ. Jon. Prefects who made rich blessing in store for them, but he them to serve. To afflict them determines, by the antecedent bitter with their burdens. Heb. bn3a02 103 ness of their lot, to enhance its sweet annotho be-siblotham, to humble him ness when it came.- When there (collect. sing.) with their burdens; i. e. falleth out any war. Heb. 10 po with the burdens of their imposing ; the angna tikrenah milhamah. The ori- suffix their’ having reference to the ginal here presents a grammatical ano. Egyptians and not the Israelites. It is maly in point of concord, the verb' fall. worthy of notice that the term 733 eth out,' being in the plural, while the anah, afflict, here used is the very term substantive, 'war,' is in the singular. in which God had predicted to AbraSuch instances occur where it is the ob- ham, hundreds of years before the hard ject of the writer to give at once a col. lots of his seed ; Gen. 15. 13,' And they lective and distributive sense the shall afflict (7337 ve-innu) them four term employed. This import of the hundred years. Their purpose evidently phrase our translators have endeavored was by their severe exactions of tribute to intimate by introducing, very proper- and labor not only to afflict and im. ly, the epithet "any, which does not poverish them, but utterly to break down occur in the Hebrew. A usage precisely their spirits, to destroy their energy, similar is met with in the following and thus eventually to check their pro. passages; Ps. 119. 103, “How sucet are digious increase. With this view they

were suddenly reduced to a state of Naphtali ;' and 17. 12, ' And Jehosha. vassalage ; they were declared to be the phat waxed great exceedingly; and he absolute property of the crown; and built in Judah castles, and cities of store the whole of the male population being (77330n miskenoth).' Different vertold off into companies, was employed sions, however, present different ren. night and day under their task-masters, derings, among which are store-houses, upon public works, and driven like cat- granaries, fortresses, and walled towns. tle into the fields. They were com The Chal, has Cities of the house of pelled to dig clay, to make bricks, to treasure ;' i.e. cities in which treasures bear burdens, and to build cities, whilst are deposited ; but what kind of treaat the same time no doubt the great- sures we are not informed. Probably est cruelties were exercised towards they were cities that served not so much them. Of this period of the Jewish for places where the king laid up his history, Josephus thus speaks : 'And riches, as for depots and granaries for having, in length of time, forgotten the corn. Syr. and Arab. “Store-houses for benefits they had received from Joseph, corn.' This is confirmed by 2 Chron. particularly the crown being now come 32. 28, from which we learn that Heze into another family, they became very kiah caused the erection of store-houses abusive to the Israelites, and contrived (7772302 miskenoth) for the increase of many ways of afflicting them; for they corn, and wine, and oil.' The Gr. renders enjoined them to cut a great number of it by rodeis o xupas, fortified cities, not channels for the river, and to build walls because this is the primary meaning of for their cities, and ramparts that they the original words, but because it was might restrain the river, and hinder its proper and customary that cities which waters from stagnating, upon its run. were to be made repositories for the ning over its own banks. They set them safe keeping of any articles whatever also to build pyramids; and by all this should be enclosed by walls and strong. wore them out, and forced them to learn ly fortified. Large armies were all sorts of mechanical arts, and to ac- doubt subsisted even in times of peace custom themselves to hard labor. All by the kings of Egypt, which would this was done under the expectation that make such depots necessary; and permultitudes of them would perish from haps the very force required to carry into over exertion, whilst all would become execution the measures against the Is. so enfeebled as that the progress of raelites would lead to the erection of population would be effectually check these places as public stores. The ed. But as usual where men set them. Vulg. hasó urbes tabernaculorum, cities selves to counteract the fixed purposes of tabernacles, undoubtedly from misof God, the result proved directly con- taking the original for 67250n mishtrary to their anticipations. When the kenoth, which signifies tabernacles.language of his decree is,' Increase and T Pithom and Raamses. The Jerus. Targ. multiply, it is equally idle and impi- makes these places to be Tanis and pus for the edict of puny mortals to pro- Pelusium ; but nothing certain can be claim,' Abstain and be diminished.' determined respecting their site. As I And they built treasure cities. Heb. the land of Goshen, however, is called 5733072 1973 197, va-yiben arë miske- the land of Rameses,' Gen.47.11, there noth, and he built (collect. sing.) cities is reason to believe that the latter town of store, as the phrase is rendered was in that land, to which it gave or 2 Chron. 16. 4, “And they smote Ijon, from which it received its name. and Dan, and Abel-maim, and all the Professor Stuart's Course of Hebrew store-cities (5772302 miskenoth) of Study, Vol. II., Excursus II., which con

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