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and Joatham begat 13 And Zorobabel begat Achaz; and Achaz begat Ez- Abiud; and Abiud begat Eliaekias;
10 And Ezekias begat Manasses; and Manasses begat Amon; and Amon begat Josias;
kim; and Eliakim begat Azor;
14 And Azor begat Sadoc; and Sadoc begat Achim; and Achim begat Eliud;
15 And Eliud begat Elea11 And Josias begat Jecho-zar; and Eleazar begat Matnias and his brethren, about the than; and Matthan begat Jatime they were carried away to cob;
16 And Jacob begat Joseph 12 And after they were the husband of Mary, of whom brought to Babylon, Jechonias was born Jesus, who is called begat Salathiel; and Salathiel Christ. begat Zorobabel;
17 So all the generations
ed; and, for a similar instance in respect to the word beget, see Deut. 4: 25; Isa. 39: 7; in which last verse, the scriptural history shows that it was the comparatively remote descendants of Hezekiah, not his immediate children, who were to be carried captives to Babylon.
17. So all the generations, &c. The list of all the names from Abraham to Jesus being very long, it was desirable to abridge it. Hence several names that occur in the Old Testament history are omitted by Matthew. Thus, in the 8th verse, Joram [Jehoram, 2 Kings 8: 16] is said to have been the father of Ozias [Uzziah, 2 Chron. 26: 11. But by examining the history, as given in the books of Kings and of Chronicles, it will be seen that there were three kings between Joram and Uzziah. There are, also, other omissions. In order to abbreviate a long list of names, omissions like these were common, as they are at the present day among the Arabians, who trace their descent from Abraham. Such omissions do not, of course, impair the genealogy, as a whole; for the principal point to be obtained is secured, that is, the tracing of the genealogy to a particular individual, and doing this in a way that cannot lead to mistake. It is here, however, necessary to observe that the words son and daughter, and the word beget, are used in the Scriptures with a much broader application than among us. They are employed in reference to a person's remote descendants, as well as to his immediate descendants. For an instance of this in the use of the word son, the first The evangelist Luke has also preverse of this chapter may be consult-served a genealogical list of the names
After the list of names was thus abridged, it was desirable, in order to aid the memory, to make a division of the names recorded. For this purpose, Matthew selected three principal eras in the history of the Hebrews, and included fourteen names in each class. The three eras are, the reign of David, the commencement of the Babylonian captivity (here called the carrying away to Babylon; see 2 Kings, 24th and 25th chapters), and the birth of the Messiah. By this means the whole length of time from Abraham to the coming of the Messiah, is divided into three parts, as stated in the verse under consideration. By numbering the names, there will be found fourteen from Abraham to David; thence onward to the captivity [that is, the carrying away to Babylon], fourteen more; and then commencing anew with Jechonias (as the 12th verse seems to require), and including Jesus, there is another set of fourteen names.
from Abraham to David are [erations; and from the carryfourteen generations; and from ing away into Babylon unto David until the carrying away Christ are fourteen genera into Babylon are fourteen gen
daughter. Thus Heli was father [father-in-law] of Joseph, inasmuch as he was father of Joseph's wife.
of Jesus' ancestors, chap. 3: 23-38. Luke traces the descent of Mary, the The list, as given by Luke, differs from mother of Jesus. But instead of inthat furnished by Matthew. Matthew serting the name of a female in a genesays, the father of Joseph, Mary's hus-alogical register, Luke inserts her husband, was Jacob (1: 16); Luke says, band's name; that is, instead of Mary, the father of Joseph was Heli. But he mentions Joseph, and calls him the there is no contradiction between the "son of Heli," as he was Heli's sontwo evangelists; for they trace the fam-in-law, having married Mary, his ily descent in two distinct lines. They both mention Abraham, and agree in their list of names from Abraham to David. Passing from David, Matthew proceeds with the line of the kings who descended from David, while Luke proceeds with David's descendants through Nathan, who was one of David's sons (2 Sam. 5: 14), but not his successor in the government; and it at length appears, that by both of these lines Jesus descended from David. Now, a very natural remark, in this view of the matter, is, that Matthew traces the descent of Joseph, the reputed and legal father of Jesus; and
This view, which reconciles the two records, is confirmed by the different words used by the two evangelists to express descent. Matthew uses the word beget, implying natural connection; Luke uses the expression son of, a more general term. Thus, while Jacob is truly said, by Matthew, to have begotten Joseph, Heli is with equal truth represented, by Luke, as the father [father-in-law] of Joseph.
The account just given may thus be presented to the eye :
It may be objected to this view of by Luke, mentions two names which the matter, that the line, as presented | also occur in Matthew's list, namely,
18 Now the birth of Jesus 19 Then Joseph her hus Christ was on this wise: When band, being a just man, and as his mother Mary was es- not willing to make her a pubpoused to Joseph, before they lic example, was minded to put came together, she was found her away privily. with child of the Holy Ghost.
Salathiel and Zorobabel. Matt. 1: 12, 13. Luke 3:27. But it may be replied, that, while the names are the same, there is no necessity for believing that the persons thus named were the same.
18. On this wise; in this manner. The word wise, as a substantive, and used separately from another word, is now obsolete. It is still retained, however, as an appendage to other words; as lengthwise, likewise. It corresponds to our modern word way, or manner. Espoused, engaged to be married. Before they came together; before they lived together as husband and
20 But while he thought on
ing to the then existing practices among the Jews, a bill of divorce could be procured without having the cause of the divorce distinctly stated in the writing.
20. The angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream. God, who had ordered all the circumstances by which Joseph was so much perplexed, made a special communication to him, in a dream. The word rendered angel signifies primarily a messenger, and applies both to men who are sent by their fellow-men on messages (as in Luke 7: 24, where the expression messengers of John is in the Greek the angels of John), and to those heavenly beings 19. Joseph her husband. Among whom God is represented as employthe Jews, there was commonly an in- ing. Since the idea of a messenger terval of ten or twelve months, some- performing the will of another, is the times a much longer time, between the fundamental idea of the word angel, engagement to marry and the cele- the word is applicable to any thing bration of the nuptials. Yet, as soon which the Lord may employ in exeas the engagement to marry was made, cuting his purposes, particularly if his the persons were spoken of as husband purposes are executed in an uncommon and wife, and unfaithfulness to each or striking manner. Hence the word other was regarded in the same light as is applied to the providential care of if the marriage ceremonies had actually God (Ps. 34: 7. 91: 11), and to any been performed. See Deut. 22: 23, special arrangement of circumstances 24. A just man. The word here by which God effects some signal retranslated just is as general in its ap-sults (2 Kings 19: 35, in which instance plication as our word good, and con- probably the pestilence is called an antains in it the idea of kindness, as well gel; Acts 12: 23, in which instance a as that of integrity. The same word sudden and fatal attack of disease is is used in 1 John 1: 9, with reference so called); as well as to the real emto the forgiveness of sins, which is ployment of heavenly beings, as in peculiarly an act of mercy or kindness. Acts 12: 7-11. 10: 3, 30. In effectNot willing to make her a public ing his designs, God may be constantly example; not willing to expose her to employing the agency of angels in acpublic infamy, by bringing an accusa-cordance with the established laws of tion against her. The kind feelings of Joseph, and the attachment which he had cherished for Mary, led him to seek a dissolution of the intended connection by giving her a bill of divorce in a private manner. Accord
the material universe, and of the spirits of men. In the case of Joseph, his circumstances were such that he needed special guidance from heaven; no human being was adequate to guide him. Thus situated, he had a remarkable
these things, behold, the angel | for that which is conceived in of the Lord appeared unto him her is of the Holy Ghost. in a dream, saying, Joseph, 21 And she shall bring forth thou son of David, fear not to a son; and thou shalt call his take unto thee Mary thy wife; name JESUS: for he shall
tion was made to him, this appellation was peculiarly appropriate. It was in harmony with the design to impress Joseph with the belief that Mary was about to become the mother of the Messiah, as it was a distinct recog nition of Joseph's descent from David -an important circumstance in regard to the husband of the Messiah's mother. || Is of the Holy Ghost. Compare Luke 1: 35.
dream. The dream was attended with such circumstances and such special impressions on his mind, that he could not reasonably doubt its having proceeded from God. The dream might have been suggested to his mind by an angel commissioned from above. A message from God, such as was now communicated to Joseph, would accord with his former confidence in the piety of Mary, and with the entire absence of any feeling of guilt on her part; and when he learned from Mary the circumstances related at full length by Luke (1: 26 -56), he might well acknowledge the hand of God, and regard the dream as a special event, arranged for relieving his mind, and for lead-effect either in accordance with those ing him in the path of duty, and as excited in his mind by one of those heavenly messengers who are prompt in obeying the will of their Lord.
That dreams were in former times among the means employed in communicating the knowledge of God's will, or of future events, to men, appears to be sustained by the Scriptures. The dreams of Joseph, as related in Gen. 37: 5-7, 9, and of the officers of Pharaoh, in Gen. 40, occupied a very special place in the order of events. Examine also Numb. 12: 6, and Job 33: 14-17. In the second chapter of Matthew, there is repeated mention of information from above being made in the same way. But the circumstances of men in those ancient times were so different from ours, that we are not at liberty to regard our dreams as proceeding from God, with the intention of making known to us his will. There are other ways in which we can acquire knowledge of our duty. Thou son of David. In the existing circumstances of Joseph, and with special reference to the object for which the divine communica
This extraordinary creation of the human nature of Jesus Christ is no more incredible than the creation of Adam and Eve, as related in the book of Genesis. That it was supernatural, is true; but that He, who established the laws of nature, can produce an
laws, or in a manner above them, is also true. The redemption of apostate sinners was certainly a very special case; and it is not surprising that the measures preparatory to this very special object should be themselves distinguished by some peculiarity. Nor was it at all unworthy in the Divine Being thus manifestly and miraculously to interpose in reference to so wonderful an object. Nor may it be unsuitable to remark, that, as he who stood at the head of the human family in regard to the first creation, was in a peculiar sense the product of creating power, so he who was to be the head of the new, the spiritual creation, was also in a peculiar sense the product of the same creating power.
21. Thou shalt call his name Jesus; for he shall save. Among the Jews, names, besides distinguishing one individual from another, were often otherwise significant. They were sometimes suggested by some remarkable circumstances connected with the child or the family, or by some revealed design of God in connection
with the birth of the child. Hagar's child (Gen. 16: 11) was to be named Ishmael," because," as the angel said, "the Lord hath heard thy affliction." The name is compounded of two words, which in Hebrew signify God will hear. Compare Gen. 41: 51, 52. Ex. 2: 10. 18: 3, 4. Names were sometimes given as intimations of some design of God to be hereafter accomplished. See Hosea 1: 4, 6, 9. Compare Is. 8: 3, 4. In accordance with this custom, the son who was to be born to Mary, was to be named JESUS. To understand the meaning of this name, we must trace it back to the Hebrew language, from which it was derived. The word which is the root of this name, means to save. Sometimes the word which signifies God, and sometimes a part of the word corresponding to Jehovah, was used in connection with another word to compose a name. This is the case in the present instance; and the word properly means, The LORD will It was to be given to the son of Mary, because he was to be the Saviour, divinely appointed to deliver his people from their sins.
This name is the same as that which is called in the Old Testament Joshua. In Num. 13: 8, mention is made of Oshea, the son of Nun. The word Oshea, when regarded according to its etymology, signifies salvation. In the same chapter of Numbers (v. 16), it is related that Moses changed the name Oshea to the name Jehoshua. The alteration was made, so far as the letters of the word in the original are concerned, by merely prefixing a part of the word which expresses Jehovah. Thus, to the idea of salvation, or deliverance, was added the idea, that the salvation proceeded from Jehovah. The words Joshua [the same as Jehoshua, only abbreviated] then, and Jesus, are the
was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying,
23 Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth
same in signification; namely, Saviour, or, The LORD will save. The difference in the manner of spelling and sounding Joshua and Jesus arises from the different powers of the Hebrew language, and of the Greek; Joshua being the sound more conformed to the Hebrew, and Jesus to the Greek. I observe here, in passing, that in two passages of the New Testament (Acts 7: 45, and Heb. 4: 8), the word Jesu smeans the Joshua of the Old Testament. The name Joshua could not be expressed in the Greek language more nearly than by the word Jesus. || His people. The Jews supposed that the Messiah was coming with special reference to their being rescued from an abject condition, and regarded themselves as his people. But this communication to Joseph, coming from heaven, must be considered as referring to the real object of the Messiah, and to the relation which he was to sustain to others besides the Jews. He was to be the Spiritual Redeemer and Lord of men. His people, then, are those who acknowledge his government and rely on him for spiritual blessings. These he will deliver from their sins. The new dispensation was specially designed to effect a change in the inward characters of men, and, by making them holy, to deliver them from the just consequences of sin, particularly in eternity.
22, 23. That it might be fulfilled, &c. The subject thus far spoken of, was of a most extraordinary character; and the result which was to flow from those events, was also very extraordinary.
The evangelist regarded the event announced by the angel, as a striking fulfilment of certain prophetic language which had been used on a former occasion. The language used on that former occa