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that it flows not regularly, but bursts out with great violence at different times. Siloam autem fontem esse ad radices montis Sion, qui non jugibus aquis, sed in certis horis diebusque ebulliat, et per terrarum concava et antra saxi durissimi cum magno impetu veniat, dubitare non possumus, nos præsertim qui in hac habitamus provincia.' In Esai. viii.

If we may believe Epiphanius, God produced this fountain at the prayer of Isaiah, a little before the death of that prophet, when he was just expiring, and wanted water to drink; and thence it was called Siloam, or Sent. He adds, that when the Jews were besieged, if they went to draw water there, it sprang up in great abundance; but if their enemies approached to it, it withdrew itself: in testimony of which, says he, the fountain still bursts out at intervals, and suddenly. De Vit. Proph. This fable also is transcribed by Baronius, as a thing to be credited; for which he is justly censured by S. Basiage, Ann. i. p. 334. whom the reader may consult.

But what Joseplius affirms concerning this fountain at the time when Jerusalem was besieged by the Romans, and which is also taken notice of by Basnage, is extremely remarkable, and should be added to what has been said, vol. i. p. 203. concerning the wonders which happened at the destruction of Jerusalem, and which showed that God had forsaken the Jews: Τίτω μεν γαρ και πηγαι πλουσιώτεραι είσιν, αι ξηρανθείσαι πρότερον υμίν. προ γαρ της αυτ8 παρουσίας, την τ: Σιλωάμ επίλιπέσαν ίστε, και τας έξω τε άστεος απάσας, ώστε προς αμφορείς ωνείσθαι το ύδωρ. το δε νυν έτω πληθύουσι τοις πολεμίοις υμών, ως μη μόνον αυτοίς και κτήνεσιν, αλλα και κήποις διαρκείν. Even the fountains How profusely for Titus, which refused their streams to you: for this you know, that before his coming, Siloam, and all the springs without the city, failed to such a degree, that water was bought by the pitcher ; but now they are so profusely liberal to your enemies, as to supply not only them and their beasts, but the gardens also.' Bell. Jud. ed. Hav. v. 9.

In the time of Domitian, Trajan, and Adrian, lived Plutarch. In his numerous writings he never makes any

mention of the Christian religion,-perhaps not daring to speak well, and not caring to speak ill of it, says Tillemont. I rather think that he had never examined it, or concerned himself about it. Philosophy and history engrossed his thoughts and his time.

A LITTLE earlier flourished Quintilian, who hath made a slight mention of Judaism. Et est conditoribus urbium infame contraxisse aliquam perniciosam cæteris gentem, qualis est primus Judaicæ superstitionis auctor.' iï. 7.

p. 270. ed. Burm. Some have imagined that he meant Christ and the Christians; but it is plain to the last degree that he reflects upon Moses. He had probably in view the conquests which that people made under Moses and Joshua, and their war with Vespasian and the Romans.

POLYCARP suffered under Marcus Aurelius, about A. D. 169. of whose martyrdom we have an account in Eusebius, iv. 15. who took it from an epistle of the church of Smyrna, of which he inserted the greater part in his history. Usher found and published a copy of this epistle, and it is inserted in Le Clerc's Patres Apostolici. In the conclusion there is a foolish note of one Pionius, the transcriber. There are some differences (though most of them small) between Eusebius and the Epistle, as for example, in the dream or vision of Polycarp, in the doxology at the end of his prayer, and in the description of the martyr standing in the fames, ως άρτος όπτώμενος, as a loaf whilst it is baking,' which is not in Eusebius.

The wonders relating to his martyrdom are these :

He had a dream or vision, portending what should befall him. Much the same thing is said to have happened to Socrates. See vol. i. p. 48. Kai Tecor suxómsvos év bu tarice γέγονε, προ τριών ημερών του συλληφθήναι αυτόν και είδεν προσκεφάλαιον αυτου υπό πυρος κατακαιόμενον και στραφείς είπεν προς τους συνόντας αυτό προφητικώς: Δεί με ζωντα κατακαυθηvai. ' Et cum oraret, triduo ante quam comprehenderetur, visio ei oblata est ; viditque cervical suum incendio conflagrare. Tum, conversus ad comites suos, prophetice dixit; Oportet me vivum comburi.'

A voice from heaven encouraged him. Το δε Πολυκάρπως είσιόντι εις το στάδιον, φωνή έξ έρανε έγένετο· "Ισχυε και ανδρίζου, Πολύκαρπε. Και τον μεν ειπόντα ουδείς είδε, την δε φωνήν των ημετέρων οι παρόντες ήκουσαν.

Porro Polycarpo intranti in stadium, vox e cælo facta est ; Fortis esto, et, viriliter age, Polycarpe. Et eum quidem, qui vocem emisit, vidit nemo, vocem qui e nostris præsentes erant audierunt.'

The fire would not burn him. Μεγάλης δε εκλαμψάσης φλογος, θαυμα μέγα είδομεν, οίς ιδείν εδόθη οι και ετηρήθημεν, εις το αναγγείλαι τους λοιπούς τα γενόμενα το γαρ, πυρ καμάρας είδος ποιησαν, ώσπερ οθόνη πλοίου υπο πνεύματος πλήρουμένη, κύκλω περιετείχισε το σώμα του μάρτυρος και ήν μέσον ουχ ώς σαρξ καιομένη, αλλ' ως άρτος, όπτώμενος, ή ως χρύσος και άργυρος εν καμίνω πυρούμενος. . Cum vero ingens flamma emicasset, grande miraculum vidimus, quibus spectare concessum fuit; qui et ideo reservati sumus, ut aliis quæ contigerunt annunciare. mus. Ignis enim fornicis speciem præbens, tanquam navis velum a vento repletum atque sinuatum, undique circumdedit martyris corpus; quod quidem in medio positum, non ut caro assa videbatur, sed veluti panis coctus, vel sicut aurum et argentum in fornace candens.'

A sweet smell came out of the pile. Και γαρ ευωδίας τοσαύτης αντελαβόμεθα, ως λιβανωτου πνέοντος, ή άλλου τινος των τιμίων αρωμάτων. “Tantam quippe fragrantiam odorabamur, ac si thus aut aliud quoddam pretiosorum aromatum oluisset.'

A great quantity of blood came from him; which seems to be inentioned as something marvellous.

A dove at the same time came out of the wound. Πέρας ούν ιδόντες οι άνομοι ου δυνάμενον αυτού το σωμα υπο του πυρος δαπανηθήναι, εκέλευσαν προσελθόντα αυτώ κομφέκτορα παραβύσαι ξιφίδιον" και τούτο ποιήσαντος εξηλθε περιστερα και πλήθος αίματος, ώστε κατασβέσαι το πυρ, και θαυμάσαι πάντα τον όχλον, ει τοσαύτη τις διαφορα μεταξύ των απίστων και των εκλεκτών. “Tandem igitur cernentes improbi corpus ipsius ab igne non posse consumi, jusserunt confectorem propius accedere, pugionemque capulo tenus abdere. Quod cum ille fecisset, egressa est columba, item tanta vis sanguinis, ut ignem extingueret, utque univcrsa plebs miraretur tantum esse discrimen inter infideles ac electos.

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From the agreement between the Epistle and Eusebius in the main (the dove excepted) it appears that we have the Epistle now as Eusebius had it, or nearly so; and since Eusebius speaks of it as of an antient and well-known writing, évypá Dws To 0:56 użyoy, if it were a forgery, it must have been composed long before his time. But, excepting the marvellous parts, the rest of the narration hath all the appearance of truth and of fact; the manner of apprehending the martyr, the speeches of the proconsul, the behaviour and prayer of Polycarp, the rage

of the

populace, and particularly of the Jews, the zeal of the Christians and their affection for their bishop, &c. all is consistent and probable, and many little incidents are mentioned which have not the air of fiction.

The Christians who accompanied Polycarp at his execution, highly reverenced and almost adored him : they attended with a full expectation, as we may suppose, of seeing some strange events; and the sight of their dear and honoured friend thus dying might raise in them a tumult of passions, and take away some of the sedateness which may be requisite in forming an accurate judgment.

Let us now consider the miraculous parts of the story.

I see no reason to doubt of Polycarp's vision, or to think it improbable that this apostolical father, and holy martyr, should have been forewarned. of his sufferings, and prepared to expect them, and enabled to give his friends this proof that God was with him and assisted him. He himself interpreted the vision, signifying by what death he should glorify God.

Without this intimation he could not have known that he should be condemned to the flames, because there were many other ways of destroying criminals; and of several martyrs who at that time had been executed, not one was burnt, but they were thrown to the beasts, as the Epistle informs us, after having endured, with amazing patience and courage, the worst tortures which malicious cruelty could contrive; and when Polycarp was condemned, the populace requested that he might be exposed to the lions; and because it could not be done, they then chose to have him burnt.

To this foreknowledge which he had received of his death, he seems to allude in his last prayer at the stake, in VOL. II.

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which he blesses God for calling him to martyrdom, and prays that he may be received of him as an acceptable sacri. fice, καθώς προητοίμασας, και ΠΡΟΕΦΑΝΕΡΩΣΑΣ, και επλήρωσας, αψευδής και αληθινός Θεός- quemadmodum preparasti, et præmonstrasti, et adimplevisti, mendacii nescius ac verax Deus.'

For these reasons I cannot assent to the solution proposed by Middleton : · The foresight of his death and the manner of it, in the time of a cruel persecution, when his person was particularly hunted from village to village, as the principal and destined sacrifice, may reasonably be considered as the effect of common prudence, without recurring to any thing miraculous.' Inquiry, p. 9.

Polycarp prophesied that he should be burnt alive: the event was, that the fire could not burn him, its natural power being preternaturally suspended, and that he died by the sword. This, as the author of 'The Two previous Questions ' observes, is a difficulty. It will afford reason to doubt either of the prophecy, or of the miracle by which the power of the fire was restrained ; and of the two, it were better to give up the latter than the former, if both cannot stand together.

Tillemont was aware of this difficulty, and therefore sup poses that Polycarp was killed by the fire, before he was wounded. “Les Payens luy firent donner un coup d'épée.Il ne faut pas doubter neanmoins qu'il ne fut mort des auparavant, puisque Dieu luy avoit revelé qu'il devoit estre brulé.' H. Ec. ii, 341. But this solution is also attended with some difficulties : The Epistle intimates no such thing, but rather that he died, partly at least, by the sword; and, if he perished by the flames, naturalists must determine whether a man who dies in the fire, and then is run through, will bleed plentifully. One would not willingly have recourse to a miracle for the effusion of blood, because such a miracle could tend to no purpose.

Le Moyne says, "Licet fuerit Polycarpus vulnere et telo confossus, tamen vivus arsit, et in pyra beatam suam animam efflavit.' Proleg. ad Var. Sacr.

S. Basnage, who admits the rest of the account, hesitates. at this part of it, at the effusion of blood : Unum est quod nos non satis capere profitemur: Confectorem pro

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