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over the emperor to his side ", by bribing an eunuch who governed his royal master.
During the Nestorian quarrel, when the emperor sent à letter to Theodoret, to let him know that, if he would not submit, he should be deposed and removed, he laughed at the threatening, knowing that he had nothing to lose except his garment, and that some friend would give him another, and not let him go naked; but the Christians in his diocese were all greatly alarmed with the fear of being deprived of him, and earnestly importuned him to come to some accommodation for their sakes. His diocese was large, and contained eight hundred parishes.
Theodoret, speaking of the violent and cruel persecution raised against Chrysostom and his friends, says, ' Porro quot episcopi ejus caussâ pulsi sint ecclesiis, et in extremos imperii Romani fines deportati, quot item Monachi eandem calamitatem perpessi sint, superfluum arbitror commemorare, et prolixam historiam texere : præsertim cum ea quæ tristia sunt, contrahenda esse censeam, et auctorum qui ejusdem nobiscum sunt fidei errata obtegenda.' v. 34.
But if Christians, giving a loose to pride, insolence, and revenge, treat their brethren and their betters with the utmost inhumanity, and do what an honest Pagan would blush to do, is a historian to spare them, and to draw a veil over their iniquities, because they were orthodox ?
As I cannot commend Theodoret for this remark, so I think him very discreet for saying nothing in his History concerning Cyril, except these few words: Erat eo tempore episcopus Alexandriæ Cyrillus, Theophili fratris filius, qui patruo in episcopatu successerat.' v. 35. As he had been at variance with Cyril, he did well to pass him by without praise or censure, especially if we consider how many things he might justly have said against him.
A very ample account of Theodoret may be found in Tillemont, H. E. xv. 207. Du Pin, B. E. iv. Fleury, H. E. and Cousin, who translated Theodoret's History into French; and they are all friends and favourers of this prelate. Father Garnier published an additional volume to the Works of Theodoret, and Dissertations upon his Life and Writings,
» Theodosius Junior,
with a view to insult him, to run him down as a heretic, and to censure him upon all occasions. If Theodoret had been a Damasus, a Cyril, a Thomas Becket, a Kalendar Saint, Garnier would have paid him more respect.
The fifth general council, at Constantinople, A. D. 553, thought fit to condemn the impious writings of Theodoret relating to Cyril and the Nestorian quarrels.
EVAGRIUS was a lawyer, and a pleader, as it seems, at Antioch.
He wrote an History from A. D. 431. to A. D. 594.
· Cæterum laudanda est in primis Evagrii diligentia, qui cum Historiam Ecclesiasticam scribere agressus esset, quæcunque ad id argumentum spectabant, ex optimis scriptori bus collegit.-Stylus quoque ejus non improbandus est : habet eniin elegantiam et venustatem, ut testatur etiam Photius. Sed quod præcipue in Evagrio laudandum est, ex Græcis ecclesiasticæ historiæ scriptoribus, solus hic rectæ fidei doctrinam integram atque illibatam servavit, ut post Photium
Plotium observavit Baronius. Illud tamen in eo reprehensionem meretur, quod non tantam diligentiam adhibuit in conquirendis antiquitatis esclesiasticæ monumentis, quantam in legendis profanis scriptoribus. Stylus præterea plerisque in locis redundat ac luxuriat, ut recte judicavit Photius.' Valesius.
- A fabulosis narrationibus non nimis alienum esse Evagrium scribit Casaubonus.' Fabricius. B. Gr.
Quæ de imaginibus, reliquiis, miraculis, Evagrius multa habet, ipsius Historiam in commendatione non ponunt.' S. Basnage, Ann. iii. 921,
This is saying too little ; for in points of theological con. troversy, Evagrius was an injudicious prejudiced zealot, and in the article of miracles a most ridiculous and contemptible bigot, and a relater of tales, which whosoever can swallow and relish, is fit, if we may be permitted to use the homely phrase of some poet,
Culum lingere Cerberi cacantis.' But then, as Photius, Baronius, and Valesius observe, he was always on the right side of the question, which is more than can be said of any other Greek writer of eccle.
siastical history, and which atones even for a want of common sense, and sets him above Eusebius and Socrates; for Socrates,' says Tillemont,' was a lawyer, and very ignorant of the spirit and discipline of the church. Hence it comes to pass that he commends equally either Catholics or Heretics, when they did things which seemed to him to be commendable.' H. E. x. p. 232, 233.
Theodorus Byzantius, Lector majoris ecclesiæ Constantinopolitanæ, duplex opus Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ conscripsit. Primum opus nihil aliud erat quam historia tripartita, duobus libris comprehensa, quam ex Socrate, Sozomeno, ac Theodorito unum in corpus collegerat. Secundum opus duobus pariter libris comprehensum fuit, quibus res in ecclesia gestas ab iis temporibus in quibus desierat Socrates, usque ad principatum Justini senioris complexus est. Utinam vero Historiam Ecclesiasticam Theo dori integram hodie haberemus. Multa enim scitu digna in ea continebantur : Consulatus quoque quibus quidque gestum fuerat, accurate erant adscripti
, ut patet ex fragmen. tis. Valesius.
Philostorgius lived in the fourth and fifth century. His History reached from A. D. 300 to A. D. 425. It is lost, in a great measure, and there only remains an Epitome, or extracts from it, made by Photius, and a few fragments.
Philostorgius was an Eunomian : he censures the Semiarians as well as the Consubstantialists, and defends the Arians and the Eunomians.
s Narrat autem Philostorgius fere contraria omnibus ecclesiasticis historicis, laudibus extollens quos novit Aria. nismo infectos, et conviciis orthodoxos perfundens: ita ut hoc ejus opus non tam historia esse videatur, quam hæreticorum laudatio, cum nuda et mera vituperatione atque accusatione Catholicorum. Stylus illi comptior; et poëticis sine tædio, minimeque ingratis vocibus utitur. Tropi quoque ac verba significantia gratiam ipsi cum jucunditate conciliant. Nisi quod interdum audacius ipsis, vel nimium detortis utendo, in frigidum et importunum serinonem incidit. Ornatur ab illo varie oratio, vel ad satietatem; ita ut in obscuritatem, nec eam semper gratam, occulte trahatur auditor. Sæpe etiam sententias apte suis locis inserit. Ipse vero scriptor mendax est, et a fabulis minime
abstinens. Miraculorum vero et vitæ gratia laudat Euse. bium Nicomediæ episcopum, quem etiam magnum nominat
, et Theophilum Indum, aliosque complures.' &c. Photius.
In these extracts of Philostorgius, Photius often begins a section with, “Ο δυσσεβής, ο φιλοψευδής, The impions wretch, the Liar, the enemy of God, the dotard, &c. says so and so.
But this was the way of Greek writers in all times, as Cicero observes. Sit ista in Græcorum levitate perversitas, qui maledictis insectantur eos a quibus de veritate dissentiunt.' De Fin. 11.
With all his defects, his credulity, and partiality to his sect (of which he had a large share) it is to be wished that we had Philostorgius entire; for he wrote the history of his own times, and of some persons whom he knew and with whom he had conversed. It would not be amiss to have one Arian historian to compare with the Consubstantialists. He had picked up several miracles wrought by Arian bishops. The Homoousians rejected them with disdain, and yet boasted of miracles equally improbable.
Theodosius the First was a warm Consubstantialist, and was perpetually making absurd and severe laws against heretics; yet Philostorgius observes that he was a prosperous prince, and blessed with success in all his undertakings, and supposes that Providence thus recompensed him for his zeal against Paganism. p. 539. He also speaks very handsomely of Apollinaris, Basil, and Gregory Nazianzen, and observes that of all the Consubstantialists they most eminent for learning, eloquence, and elegance of style, and that Athanasius, compared to them, was a mere child, and a superficial writer.
Apollinaris, though ranked amongst heretics for reasons mentioned above, yet joined with the Consubstantialists against Arianism.
The laws of Constantine, most of which may be found in the Theodosian Code, are remarkable on one account or other.
Several of them are humane and charitable, and such as the spirit of Christianity would naturally suggest.
He and his successors made decrees which must have code tinually released multitudes from slavery,
He abolished the cruel punishment of crucifixion, and of breaking the legs, and of marking the face with a hot iron.
Si quis in ludum fuerit, vel in metallum, pro criminum deprehensorum qualitate, damnatus, minime in ejus facie scribatur: dum et in manibus et in suris possit pæna damnationis una scriptione comprehendi: Quo facies, quæ ad similitudinem pulchritudinis cælestis est figurata, minime maculetur.' Cod. Th. l. ix, tit. 40. p. 293. et Gothofred.
The Pagans used to stigmatize themselves (but not in the face) out of religion. See Van Dale, Dissert. p. 64. and Grotius, ad Apocal. xiii. p. 1205. and the commentators on Levit. xix. 28. Soldiers were also stigmatized.
He made a law against gladiatorial shows, which however continued till Honorius put an end to that wicked diversion, A. D. 403.
Cruenta spectacula in otio civili et domestica quiete non placent: Quapropter, qui omnino gladiatores esse prohibemus, eos qui forte delictorum causa hanc conditionem atque sententiam mereri consueverant, metallo magis facies inservire, ut sine sanguine scelerum suorum pænas agnoscant. Cod. Th. l. xv. tit. 12. p. 395.
It would amaze one to consider how many lives had been thrown away in these combats. • Credo,' says Lipsius,
imo scio nullum bellum tantam cladem vastitatemque generi humano intulisse, quam hos ad voluptatem ludos. Mentior si non unus aliquis mensis Europæ stetit vicenis capitum millibus, aut trecenis.' Saturn. i. 12.
He forbad the tax-gatherers to seize upon men's labouring servants, or oxen, for the payment of debts to the govern
Even common prudence required this moderation; because such violent methods would have reduced farmers to a state of beggary, and so have made them for ever unable to pay their taxes; ex quo tributorum inlatio retardatur.' Cod. Th. 1. ii. tit. xxx. p. 224.
Zosimus says that he oppressed the poor, and used them cruelly to make them pay their taxes. 1. ii. but Zosimus was a bigoted Pagan.
He restrained exorbitant usury or interest, allowing at the same time that which was fair and reasonable. The