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of the country, the nature of the seasons, the mode of farming, and various other de sirable particulars. The female part of the family may engage themselves as household servants, whose wages are always paid in money, and thus add a good deal to the general stock. Many, who are now independent settlers, came to the Province in absolute poverty; but, by pursuing the plan above described, were soon enabled to commence working upon their own lands, and to raise themselves beyond the reach
"Some people choose to clear a few acres, and crop them, before they build a house, or go to reside upon their lots. Others erect a habitation first of all, and move into it at once with their families. The first plan is most congenial to the feelings of British emigrants; for the partial cultivation that has been effected, diminishes the wildness of the surrounding forests, and things are usually more comfortable and orderly within doors, than they can be when the settler takes up his residence on his land before any trees have been cut down. But the expence of supporting a family, while clearing operations are going forward, is great, unless the idle members engage themselves as servants; and the work, particularly if hired persons are employed, does not proceed so fast as it would do, were the principal residing upon his lot, and superintending the business himself. Therefore, all settlers who have little money, ought to set themselves down in the woods at once, and boldly commence chopping. This plan may subject them to a few hardships, but it will assuredly be for their advantage in the
"Much of the immediate success of a settler depends upon the time of his arri val in the country. Should he not reach Quebec till the autumn, winter will be almost commencing before he arrives at York, and the badness of the roads, and inclemency of the weather, will then make
difficult for him to travel to the new settlements, and survey the lands that are open for location. Even were he able to fix upon a lot, and build a house before winter set in, he could not clear any land till spring, on account of the deepness of the snow and severe cold; while he would all the time be at the expence of supporting himself and his family in idleness. But if the emigrant reaches York in the month of July, he will find sufficient time to choose a good lot, erect a habitation, clear several acres of ground, and sow it with wheat or Indian corn, previous to the commencement of winter: thus getting the start, by a whole year, of him who arrives late in the autumn, and who would only be preparing his land for seed, when the other was reaping his first crop.
"I shall now suppose that the emigrant has made all necessary arrangements for the occupation of his land. His first object then is to get a house built. If his lot lies in a settlement, his neighbours will assist him in doing this without being paid; but if far back in the woods, he must hire peo ple to work for him. The usual dimensions of a house are eighteen feet by sixteen. The roof is covered with bark or shingles, and the floor with rough hewn planks, the interstices between the logs that compose the walls being filled up with pieces of wood and clay. Stones are used for the back of the fire-place, of coarse basket work chimney. The whole of this kind will not sing the labourers had
and a hollow cone does the office of a cost of a habitation exceed £12, suppo been paid for erect.
ing it; but as almost every person can have much of the work done gratis, the expence will not perhaps amount to more than £5 or £6."
Those who think seriously of fol lowing Mr Howison's advice, will of course study his book with the serious attention it deserves; but upon the whole, it seems to be made out quite clearly and convincingly, that any industrious family, who can command a capital of L.20 or L.30, may safely embark for Canada, and nourish the hope of soon seeing themselves elevated into a situation of comfort and independence, altogether unknown among the poorer classes of our countrymen here in Britain-while the man who is in possession of twice as much money, cannot fail, unless through the most culpable negligence on his own part, to establish himself in the course of a very few in a years, manner far more than adequate to secure all the purposes for which any Scotchman ever emigrates, or thinks of emigrating from his native shores.
We have not room to enter more fully into the merits of this part Mr Howison's work, but shall now proceed to consider very briefly its merits of a purely literary character. These, it cannot be disputed, are of a very brilliant order. Howison (like Humboldt) seems to write of the forests, the rivers, the cataracts, the boundless and majestic wildernesses of the New World, as if his spirit were quite penetrated with the migh ty and mysterious influences of elemental nature; nor have we met, for a long while, with any thing more charming in our literature, than the unstudied contrast continually presented
by his quiet and temperate views of men and manners on the one hand, and his most rich and imaginative descriptions of external nature on the other. Neither Chateaubriand nor Humboldt has written any thing more truly beautiful and impressive, than his sketch of the voyage up the St Lawrence in the batteaux-Some of his descriptions of walks and rides through the primeval forests, which still skirt the shores of Ontario and Erie-His rich panorama of the thousand islands-or, above all, his visit to the cataracts of Niagara. We venture to quote a considerable part of the last description, and to challenge any one to point out any thing more powerful, or more chastely and tastefully powerful, in all the prose that has been written in our time.
spray of the Great Fall had extended itself through a wide space directly over me, and, receiving the full influence of the sun, exhibited a luminous and magnificent rainbow, which continued to over-arch and irenthusiastically contemplated the indescriradiate the spot on which I stood, while I bable scene.
"Any person, who has nerve enough, (as I had,) may plunge his hand into the water of the Great Fall, after it is projected over the precipice, merely by lying down flat, with his face beyond the edge of the Table Rock, and stretching out his arm to its utmost extent. The experiment is truly a horrible one, and such as I would not wish to repeat; for, even to this day, I feel I recollect having been in the posture above a shuddering and recoiling sensation when
"The body of water which composes the middle part of the Great Fall is so immense, that it descends nearly two-thirds of "The Table Rock, from which the the space without being ruffled or broken, Falls of Niagara may be contemplated in and the solemn calmness with which it rolls all their grandeur, lies on an exact level over the edge of the precipice, is finely conwith the edge of the cataract, on the Canatrasted with the perturbed appearance it asda side, and, indeed, forms a part of the sumes after having reached the gulf below. precipice over which the water gushes. It But the water towards each side of the Fall derives its name from the circumstance of is shattered the moment it drops over the its projecting beyond the cliffs that support rocks, and loses as it descends, in a great it, like the leaf of a table. To gain this po- measure, the character of a fluid, being disition, it is necessary to descend a steep vided into pyramidal-shaped fragments, bank, and to follow a path that winds the bases of which are turned upwards. among shrubbery and trees, which entire- The surface of the gulf below the cataract ly conceal from the eye the scene that presents a very singular aspect; seeming, awaits him who traverses it. When near as it were, filled with an immense quantity the termination of this road, a few steps of hoar frost, which is agitated by small! carried me beyond all these obstructions, and rapid undulations. The particles of and a magnificent amphitheatre of cataracts water are dazzlingly white, and do not apburst upon my view with appalling sud-parently unite together, as might be supdenness and majesty. However, in a moment the scene was concealed from my eyes by a dense cloud of spray, which involved me so completely, that I did not lare to extricate myself. A mingled rushing and thundering filled my ears. I could see nothing except when the wind made a chasm in the spray, and then tremendous cataracts seemed to encompass me on every side, while below, a raging and foamy gulf of undiscoverable extent lashed the rocks with its hissing waves, and swallowed, unler a horrible obscurity, the smoking floods hat were precipitated into its bosom.
"At first, the sky was obscured by clouds, but after a few minutes the sun burst forth, and the breeze subsiding at the same time, permitted the spray to ascend perpendicularly. A hostof pyramidal clouds rose majestically, one after another, from the abyss at the bottom of the Fall; and each, when it had ascended a little above he edge of the cataract, displayed a beauiful rainbow, which in a few moments was gradually transferred into the bosom of the loud that immediately succeeded. The VOL. X.
posed, but seem to continue for a time in a state of distinct comminution, and to repel each other with a thrilling and shivering motion which cannot easily be described.
"The noise made by the Horse-shoe Fall, though very great, is infinitely less than might be expected, and varies in loudness according to the state of the atmosphere. When the weather is clear and frosty, it may be distinctly heard at the distance of ten or twelve miles; nay much further when there is a steady breeze; but I have frequently stood upon the declivity of the high bank that overlooks the Table Rock, and distinguished a low thundering only, which at times was altogether drowned amidst the roaring of the rapids above the cataract. In my opinion, the concave shape of the Great Fall explains this circumstance. The noise vibrates from one side of the rocky recess to the other, and a little only escapes from its confinement, and even this is less distinctly heard than it would otherwise be, as the profusion of spray renders the air near the cataract a very indifferent conductor of sound.
"The road to the bottom of the Fall presents many more difficulties than that which leads to the Table Rock. After leaving the Table Rock, the traveller must proceed down the river nearly half a mile, where he will come to a small chasm in the bank, in which there is a spiral staircase enclosed in a wooden building. By descending this stair, which is seventy or eighty feet, perpendicular height, he will find himself under the precipice on the top of which he formerly walked. A high but sloping bank extends from its base to the edge of the river; and on the summit of this there is a narrow slippery path, covered with angular fraginents of rock, which leads to the Great Fall. The impending cliffs, hung with a profusion of trees and brushwood, over-arch this road, and seem to vibrate with the thunders of the cataract. In some places they rise abruptly to the height of one hundred feet, and display upon their surfaces, fossil shells, and the organic remains of a former world; thus sublimely leading the mind to contemplate the convulsions which nature has undergone since the creation. As the traveller advances, he is frightfully stunned by the appalling noise; for clouds of spray sometimes envelope him, and suddenly check his faltering steps,-rattlesnakes start from the cavities of the rocks, and the scream of eagles soaring among the whirlwinds of eddying vapour, which obscure the gulf of the cataract, at intervals announce that the raging waters have hurled some bewildered animal over the precipice. After scrambling among piles of huge rocks that obstruct his way, the traveller gains the bottom of the Fall, where the soul can be susceptible only of one emotion, viz. that of un
"It was not until I had, by frequent excursions to the Falls, in some measure familiarized my mind with their sublimities, that I ventured to explore the penetralia of the Great Cataract. The precipice over which it rolls is very much arched underneath; while the impetus which the water receives in its descent, projects it far beyond the cliff, and thus an immense Gothic arch is formed by the rock and the torrent. Twice I entered this cavern, and twice I was obliged to retrace my steps, lest I should be suffocated by the blasts of dense spray that whirled around me; however, the third time I succeeded in advancing about twenty-five yards. Here darkness began to encircle me; on one side, the black cliff stretched itself into a gigantic arch far above my head, and on the other, the dense and hissing torrent formed an impenetrable sheet of foam, with which I was drenched in a moment. The rocks were so slippery, that I could hardly keep my feet, or hold securely by them; while the horrid din made me think the
precipices above were tumbling down in colossal fragments upon my head.
"It is not easy to determine how far an individual might advance between the sheet of water and the rock; but were it even possible to explore the recess to its utmost extremity, scarcely any one, I believe, would have courage to attempt an expedi tion of the kind.
"A little way below the Great Fall, the river is, comparatively speaking, so tran quil, that a ferry-boat plies between the Canada and American shores, for the convenience of travellers. When I first crossed, the heaving flood tossed about the skiff with a violence that seemed very alarming; but as soon as we gained the middle of the river, my attention was altogether engaged by the surpassing grandeur of the scene before me. I was now within the area of a semi-circle of cataracts, more than three thousand feet in extent, and floated on the surface of a gulf, raging, fathomless, and interminable. Majestic cliffs, splendid rainbows, lofty trees, and columns of spray, were the gorgeous decorations of this theatre of wonders, while a dazzling sun shed refulgent glories upon every part of the scene. Surrounded with clouds of vapour, and stunned into a state of confusion and ter ror by the hideous noise, I looked upwards to the height of one hundred and fifty feet, and saw vast floods, dense, awful, and stupendous, vehemently bursting over the precipice, and rolling down, as if the windows of heaven were opened to pour another deluge upon the earth. Loud sounds, resembling discharges of artillery or volcanic explosions, were now distinguishable amidst the watery tumult, and added terrors to the abyss from which they issued. The sun, looking majestically through the ascending spray, was encircled by a radiant halo; whilst fragments of rainbows floated on every side, and momentarily vanished only to give place to a succession of others more brilliant. Looking backwards, I saw the Niagara river, again become calm and tranquil, rolling magnificently between the towering cliffs that rose on either side, and receiving showers of orient dew-drops from the trees that gracefully over-arched its transparent bosom. A gentle breeze ruffled the waters, and beautiful birds fluttered around, as if to welcome its egress fron those clouds of spray, accompanied by thun ders and rainbows, which were the heralds of its precipitation into the abyss of the ca taract."
The next is a short but admirable night-piece in the wilderness. "When it was midnight, I walked out, and strolled into the woods contiguous to the house. cended to the summit of the arch A glorious moon had now as light upon the silent world below. The ven, and poured a perpendicular flood of
starry hosts sparkled brightly when they emerged above the horizon, but gradually faded into twinkling points as they rose in the sky. The motionless trees stretched their majestic boughs towards a cloudless firmament, and the rustling of a withered leaf, or the distant howl of the wolf alone broke upon my ear. I was suddenly roused from a delicious reverie, by observing a dark object moving slowly and cautiously C among the trees. At first, I fancied it was a bear, but a nearer inspection discovered an Indian on all fours. For a moment I felt unwilling to throw myself in his way, lest he should be meditating some sinister design against me; however, on his wa ving his hand, and putting his finger on his lips, I approached him, and notwithstanding his injunction to silence, inquired what he did there. "Me watch to see the deer r kneel," replied he; "This is Christmas night, and all the deer fall upon their knees, to the Great Spirit, and look up." The solemnity of the scene, and the grandeur of the idea, alike contributed to fill me with awe. It was affecting to find traces of the Christian faith existing in such a place, even in the form of such a tradition."
Fine as these are, we think it would not be difficult to quote ten or twelve sketches of equal excellence, from the first part of the book; but we must now shew our readers, that Mr Howison possesses talents for composition, not less versatile than powerful. Throughout the whole of the book, are scattered little characteristic sketches of domestic manners, which exhibit a sort of quiet tact and native humour, which unfortunately has come to be of but rare occurrence in our modern English literature. We shall quote one or two of these little sketches, and then leave our readers to form their own conclusions. Mr Howison rests for a short time in the house of a comfortable settler on the (Canadian) Thames. "In this house there was a woman afflicted with acute rheumatism. She had tried the mineral oil without receiving any benefit from it, and consequently had been induced to put herself into the hands of one of the doctors of the settlement. This gentleman happened to make his daily visit when I was present, and entered the room, carrying a pair of large saddle-bags, in which phials and gallipots were heard clattering against each other in a most formidable manner. He did not deign to take off his hat, but advanced to his patient, and shook hands, saying, How d'ye do, my good lady, how d'ye do ?'—“Oh, doc
tor,' cried the patient, I was wishing to see you-very bad-I don't calculate upon ever getting smart again.'' Hoity, toity,' returned the doctor, you look a thundering sight better than you did yesterday.'Better!' exclaimed the sick woman, no, doctor, I am no better-I'm going to die in your hands. My dear good lady,' cried the doctor, I'll bet a pint of spirits I'll raise you in five days, and make you so spry, that you'll dance upon this floor.' Oh,' said the woman, if I had but the root doctor that used to attend our family at Connecticut; he was a dread ful skeelful man.' Here they were interrupted by the entrance of her husband, who was a clumsy, credulous-looking person. 'Good morning to you, doctor,' said he, what's the word ?'' Nothing new or strange, sir,' returned the doctor.Well now, doctor,' continued the husband, how do ye find that there woman? -No better, I conclude ?—I guess as how it would be as well to let you understand plainly, that if you can't do her never no good, I wouldn't wish to be run into no expences--pretty low times, doctor-money's out of the question. Now, sir, can you raise that there woman ?' Yes, my good sir,' cried the doctor confidently, yes I can-I offered to bet a pint with her this please, my dear friend.' But, doctor, moment, and I'll make it a quart if you are you up to the natur of her ailment ?' inquired the husband. "Oh, perfectly,' said the other, nothing more simple; it arises entirely from obstruction and constitutional idiosyncrasy, and is seated under the muscular fascia. Some casual excitement has increased the action of the absorbent vessels so much, that they have body, and occasioned the pain and debility drawn the blood from different parts of the
tor,' cried the husband, I swear you talk that is now present.'- Well now, doclike a lawyer, and I begin to have hopes that you'll be pretty considerably apt to raise my woman.' The doctor now opened his saddle-bags, and, having set forth many small parcels and dirty phials upon the table, began to compound several recipes for his patient, who, when she saw him employed in this way, put out her head between the curtains of the bed, and cried, Doctor, don't forget to leave something for the debilitation.' When he had finished, he packed up his laboratory, and ordered that something he had left should be infused in a pint of whisky, and that a table spoonful of the fluid should be taken three times a-day. Will that raise me slick?' said the woman; 'I guess I had as well take it four times a-day.' As the doctor was mounting his horse, I heard the
In the course of the journey to New York, the following incident occurs, as the reader will guess, after Mr Howison has passed the frontier of the United States:
granted, and soon bell to announce
farmer say, Doctor, don't be afeard about unheard of request was 6 your pay, I'll see you satisfied: money, you afterwards they rung a know's, out of the question, but I've plenty that tea was ready. I immediately obeyed of good buck-wheat."" the summons; and, on entering the public room, found eighteen or twenty people al ready seated at a table, which was abun dantly furnished with beef-steaks, ham, fowls, preserved fruit, cake, cheese, &c. The hostess, who was rather pretty, stood at one end of the table, and poured out tea, gracefully enough, to those who called for it, and occasionally joined in the conversation, with the same ease as if she had been one of the guests. Most of the people were respectable enough in appearance, but very plain in their manners. A good deal of detached unconnected conversation pass. ed among them; but some of it was in such extraordinary language, that I found no difficulty in remembering the expressions verbatim, until tea was over, when I wrote them down, and shall now give the reader 'the following specimens:
"About six in the morning we drove up to a small house, which appeared to be a sort of tavern. The landlord was at the door ready to receive us, and the following conversation took place :
"Landlord. Good morning, gentlemen. "Driver. Good morning, mister. "L. Very warm, but pretty considerable of air stirring.
"D. I guess so. Can we get any thing
“L. Well, I suppose you can. What liquor would you propose to have? "D. Brandy, I guess.
"L. We've got nothing in the house but whisky, sir.
"D. Let us have some then-by God, I'll treat; but where's Bill?
"L. Cleared out, I guess. "D. What an almighty shame! and where's his family?
"L. Cleared out too, mister. "D. "Tarnation! well, I vow one feels pretty damned cheap, when a fellow clears out without paying scores.
"L. By the life he does but here's success to Bill, (drinking,) though he owes me for a pair of shoes.
"D. Bill owes me eight dollars, and fifty-seven cents and a half.
"D. Ho, good morning to you! no, no, I'll be satisfied with three hundred rails and some leather-(a pause.) Bill knows what he's about; did he clear out slick?
"L. Yes, mister, right off; but I guess he's still in the bush; and I swear I could find him if I had a mind.
"Take some beef, 'squire.-No, I
a damned blow up.-
No, I dined at full jump, and went right off in the stage, which carried me slick to this place. I fear that little shaver (child) Not at all, ma'am, is troubling on you, sir pretty considerable of a boy, I guess. Yes, sir, only three years old, and knows his letters, He was in the abbs and ebbs L. I guess he will-howsomever, last week.-Hemust be awfully smart!!!' >>
"D. Bill will steer southward.
here's success to Bill, and damn the shoes." The following is the last we shall quote:
"About six in the evening we arrived at the village of Auburn, and I abandoned the stage there, intending to go to Utica by way of the Grand Canal. Having seen my portmanteau disposed of, I entered the ta
vern, and desired that water might be sent into a room. Water!' exclaimed the landlord, why, here's water and towels
We are pleased with the smartness and liveliness of these sketches; but we cannot allow ourselves to quote them without expressing our honest belief, that Mr Howison is quite wrong if he thinks such vulgarity, they record, The probability is, that this young auat all peculiar to transatlantic manners. thor went abroad without having ever
enough in the bar-I guess all the gentle. enjoyed any great opportunities of tra
men washes there.' I surveyed the bar from velling through his own country, or, at having had occa curiosity, and found things in such a state, least, without ever that I would rather have worn the coat of sion to mingle very closely with the dust I had received while in the stage, than lower orders of his own countrymen. attempted ablution in it. However, after If Mr Howison had visited Manchessome parley and hesitation, my apparently ter, Paisley, Glasgow, and such towns,