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felt ; for there is nothing of the kind, of a plans in that important sphere of its beProtestant character, in either of the two nevolent and Christian ministrations. provinces.
The situation of the church in this por- HISTORY OF SOUTH INDIA tion of British America, says the Report,
MISSIONS. is thus very faithfully and aptly described An interesting summary has been drawn by an intelligent and active eye-witness. up of the rise and progress of the Pro“ There is no reason to believe that the testant Missions under the patronage of disposition of the people is hostile to the the Society for promoting Christian KnowProtestant Episcopal Church; for experi- ledge in the South of India, and of their ence shews that wherever a pious, zealous, extent and condition at the time of their and active clergyman has been placed, the transfer to the Society for the Propagation Church is invariably respected and gene, of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. The rally admired, those who were prejudiced document is appended to the Report of are soon made friendly, and are frequently the last-mentioned Society; but it merits brought over to her communion. In the wide circulation in a separate form.“ present state of things, the good reception Tanjore and Trichinopoly missions form, of the Church among the people, and its fu- in a Christian view," said Bishop Middleture prosperity, depend more than can be ton, “the noblest memorial of British conwell imagined in England upon the per- nexion with India.” Bishop Heber, who sonal qualities of the clergy, and their fit- had seen most parts of India, said he had ness for particular local circumstances. seen nothing like the Missions in Tinjore. To affirm that the Church is flourishing Again and aguin he repeated, “ Here is the throughout Protestant Canada, would be strength of the Christian cause in India; to advance what is not true ; but it would it would indeed be a grievous and a heavy be equally wide of the truth to pronounce sin if England and all the agents of its that there is no hope of ever seeing this bounty do not nourish and protect these happy consummation brought about: on churches." We proceed to lay before our the contrary, had they a sufficient number readers an abstract of this valuable meof missionaries endued with a proper spis morial. rit, the members of the Church in number The Protestant Missions in the South would surpass that of any other denomi- of India extend over large portions of the tion of Protestants."
fine provinces lying between the latitude From North America the Report pro- of 13 deg. north, and the extremity of the ceeds to the diocese of Calcutta. It is Peninsula south, and between the sea on proposed to extend the benefits of educa. the east, and the great range of mountailis tion in Bishop's College by throwing open known by the name of the Ghauts on the its walls to non-foundation students, with. west. They have now existed for nearly out requiring from them the declaration a century and a quarter. Rising from stipulated by the statute. In addition to slender beginnings, the native Christian the annual examination on December 14, congregations have increased or diminished examinations have been held, to urge the as the political state of their country has progress of the students; and the exauni- been tranquil or turbulent, and as the ners express themselves much gratified by means have existed of affording to thein the result. The principal attention of the the supervision and instruction of faithful students is directed to divinity, the clas- pastors and active teachers. sics, and the grammar of the Oriental These missions owe their first institution languages. The Board "express their to the piety of Frederick the Fourth, King satisfaction with the general state of the of Denmark, who, in 1705, established the college, and their increased conviction of Royal Danish Mission at Tranquebar, an the highest importance of this institution ancient settlement of that nation on the to the best interests of the Christian reli- sca-shore of the Tanjore district on the coast gion in that part of the world."
of Coromandel, 145 miles south by west of The three Missionaries in Bengal, Madras. The Society for promoting ChrisMessrs. Morton, Tweddle, and Di Mello, tian Knowledge, impressed with a conviccontinue the superintendance of a large tion of the importance of such an institucircle of native schools, containing several tion, lost no time in contributing their best hundreds of children, whose parents ea- aid to its success, by sending out in 1710 gerly avail themselves of the opportunities valuable donations in money, stores, books, thus afforded them of procuring for their and a printing press, and by undertaking children a certain degree of European in the management of such charities as should struction.
be put into their hands, for the support The Society's operations in the East and enlargement of the Indian Protestant had been greatly iinpeded by the death Missions, and in 1728 they were enabled of Bishop Heber; and Bishop Turner had to establish the first English mission at scarcely entered upon his labours at the Madras. The original institution at Trandate of the last advices in the Report. quebar has continued to the present time Should it please God to spare that much- the exertions of its beneficial and pious esteemed prelate, we trust to learn much influence, but, owing to the limited pecuinteresting intelligence of the Society's niary aids which it is now enabled to draw
from Denmark, its operations are much Malabar (Tamul) and Portuguese, and restricted, and some of the congregations several works of devotion and religious inand schools have been transferred to the struction, had been prepared, and were in support and protection of the Society for course of printing at the presses sent out promoting Christian Knowledge. The by the Society for promoting Christian Royal Danish Mission in thirty-five years Knowledge. after its establishment numbered up- In 1749 Madras was restored to the wards of 3,700 Christians, among whom English, and the missionaries returned to were many competent to the duties of that station, and the Governor put them schoolmasters and catechists, and some in possession of a new chureb, with a stated to be qualified for the work of mis- house and a garden adjoining to it, sionaries. In 1787 the number of Chris. which had been appropriated to the tians on the books of the Tranquebar use of the Roman-Catholic Portuguese Mission, partly natives, and partly the while Madras was in possession of the mixed descendants of Europeans and na- French. tives, from its foundation to that time, Before the capture of Madras, the mis. amounted to 17,716.
sionaries Sartorius and Giesler bad visited It was from Tranquebar that the first Cuddalore, and laid the foundation of the missionaries were engaged by the Society Protestant mission at that place, which for promoting Christian Knowledge ; and has since become one of the chief staamong others the greatest labourer in the tions of the Society on the coast of CoroIndian vineyard, the excellent Schwartz. mandel. The political events of 1758 The most cordial attachment have unin which caused the surrender of Fort St. terruptedly existed between the ministers David to the French, compelled the misof the Danish and the English missions sionaries, as well as great part of the inin Southern India. When adverse cir- habitants, to quit the place. In 1760 cumstances have depressed the mother in- Cuddalore was retaken by the British stitution, and the influence of the daughter arms, and the missionary resumed his missions had spread over a large space functions; but, finding the work too laboaround her, she has not been forgotten rious for him alone, he was, in the year nor abandoned by the Society for pro- 1766, favoured with a colleague, the Rev. moting Christian Knowledge; but the Mr. Gerické. The mission now began to benevolence of England has been, and flourish and the schools increased. In the continues to be, imparted through the year 1771 there were forty children in the Society to cherish her churches and Tamul school, besides an English mission. schools. These missions derived great school : sixty-seven converts had been adbenefit from the benevolence of pious and mitted into the church, of whom fortylearned persons in Germany; and from seven were adults, and twenty children. the University of Halle in Saxony the “ The former," it is remarked in the Re. Society for promoting Christian Know- port, “had been fully instructed for a long Jedge was furnished with many exemplary time, and mature examination into their missionaries,
past lives, and conviction of their sincerity The early records of the Missions of the and amendment, had, at their earnest reSociety for promoting Christian Know- quest, been received." In 1787 Mr. Geledge do not afford the means of tracing, rické was called to Vepery, the concerns with so much accuracy as might be de- of that mission requiring his principal sired, the progress of their first labours. care. He left at Cuddalore Mr. Harst; The first proposal for establishing the and the Cuddalore mission remained in English mission at Madras originated close connection with Vepery until Mr. with the Rev. Mr. Schultze, of Tran- Gerické’s death, in the year 1803. He quebar, who, upon the Society's engaging used to visit that congregation every year, for its support, repaired thither, and had and, with that Christian liberality which for his early associates the Rev.J.Sartorius formed a prominent feature in his characand J. Geisler. The Society soon after gave ter, he furnished the salaries of the reader, directions for the foundation of a church catechist, and schoolmaster, attached to to be laid ; and, the East-India Company the church of Cuddalore. The endowhaving signified their consent to the build- ments of this mission in lands became ing of a church and two schools at Ma- very considerable, besides donations in dras, the Society sent instructions to their money, particularly one by Mr. Ostervald, missionaries for accomplishing the object. who, in 1760, gave to the mission 1000?. In 1746, upon the taking of Madras by Residences have been built for the native the French, the missionaries were obliged catechists and teachers, and for the poorer to retreat to Pulicat, a Dutch settlement, Christians; school-houses are erected; twenty-three miles to the northward, on and the rents of the lands form part of the sea coast of the Carnatic. In the the mission-funds. The church having period between the settlement of the mis- fallen to decay, Gerické, the worthy sucsion at Madras, and their expulsion by the cessor of Schwartz, rebuilt it in 1800 with French, upwards of 800 persons appear to his own funds, appropriating to that purhave been baptized ; schools were esta- pose the whole amount of an allowance blished; and translations of the Bible into which he had received from the government at Madras for officiating at the naval about 200; in 1807, about 330; and in hospital at that presidency.
1817, about 460. About the year 1754, the first visit of a Visits were frequently made by the Protestant missionary appears to have Danish missionaries of Tranquebar, and been made to Negapatam, a sea-port subsequently by those of the Society for town, twenty miles south of Tranquebar, promoting Christian Knowledge at "Triby two of ihe Danish missionaries. In chinopoly, to different places in the sur1782, when Negapatam was taken by the rounding country, and further to the southEnglish, Gerické established there the ward of the peninsula, especially to TanMission Institution, and with the consent jore, Madura, and Dindigul ; and as opporof the British government took charge of tunities presented themselves, either when an excellent church, built by the Dutch converts were made to Protestantism, or government, and of a small chapel for the when small societies of Christians were Tamul congregation. By the year 1787, found who had no pastor to afford them Gerické had baptized, besides children, spiritual assistance, nor teachers to educate thirty-two adults, of whom some had been their children, the missionaries established under instruction several years, and some schools and built prayer-houses and chawere Mohammedans of the Malay cast; pels; and when the number of Christians thirteen couple had been married ; and was large, stationed a catechist. No arts several young persons had been instructed were used to draw the children into a profor admission to the Sacrament of the fession of the religion of their instructors, Lord's Supper. Negapatam was also an but the books prepared for the use of the object of the care of Schwartz, who, in native Christian schools, including the 1794, obtained from the government of Holy Scriptures, were openly used in the Madras a monthly allowance of forty pa- classes, and to this practice no objection godas (161.) for the relief of the Protestant was made by the parents. The establishpoor at that place; which sum is still ment of schools is considered by Hindus paid, and is under the administration of as among the chief and best of charitable the missionaries.
works; and, thus favourably prepossessed, The mission at Trichinopoly was found they are not hasty to object either to the ed by Schwartz, who first visited that course of instruction pursued, or the displace in a journey on foot from Tranque- cipline.—As early as 1732, the kingdom bar, in 1763; and after remaining there of Tanjore was visited by the Tranquebar three months, with the assistance and en- missionaries, and converts to Christianity couragement of the English gentlemen were not wanting there ; and ten years resident there, among whom was a bro- afterwards the same missionaries reported, ther of Bishop Newton, a house was erect- that what they had long desired, the bav. ed, to be used as a place of worship and for ing little schools in the country, was now a school. From Trichinopoly Schwartz accomplished, there being two opened. proceeded to Tanjore, which became af- The missionaries stated, that these two terwards the great field of his apostolic little schools were in a good state, and of labours; and on this his first visit, he particular service to the mission, as places preached the Gospel there, and,“ taking wherein to preach and perform other dioccasion from questions which the cour- vine offices in the couniry: they further tiers asked him concerning worldly mat stated, that two native ministers had traters, to turn the discourse to things be- velled for two, three, four, nay, sometimes longing to God and heaven, he was heard for six weeks together, at different times, by the King of Tanjore, who was then pre- to instruct the dispersed Christians, and sent, but not seen by Schwartz.” In Sep- to administer the holy Sacrament among tember he returned to Trichinopoly, bap- them. In 1745 the T'anjore missionaries tized some Heathen, and received some particularly recommended the schools, as Papist converts into the Protestant con- the most likely means to propagate Chrisgregation, thus first established in these tianity; adding, that the Heathen natives parts. In 1767 he quitted Tranquebar were, many of them, so civil, and fond of to fix his residence at Trichinopoly, where having their children taught, as even to he was engaged in affording spiritual as- contribute towards building these schools. sistance to the garrison ; for which duty About 1769 the zealous Schwartz visited the Government of Madras, without any the Christians at Tanjore, with the per. solicitation on his part, were pleased to mission of the Rajah, with whom he had grant him a salary of 1001.
, which he ex. frequent personal conferences ; thus laying pended in finishing the church and mis- the foundation of that amicable intercourse sion-house. The church is a large hand which reflects so much honour on the some building, capable of holding from Rajah and his family, and has been of such 1500 to 2000 persons. There are also an essential service, under God's blessing, to English and a Tamul school.
the Christian cause in southern India. On The Christian congregation at Trichi- one occasion, in 1770, when, after a sonopoly, consisting partly of native Indians, journ more than usually protracted, he reand partly of the mixed descendants of quested to know the king's pleasure, wheEuropeans, appears to have been, in 1792, ther he was to remain at Tanjore, or go back to Trichinopoly, he was informed, had sent 300 rupees to his palanquin, to " that he might go back for that time, but defray his travelling expenses. He wished was to remember that the king locked to decline this present, but he was told upon him as his Padre.” In 1772 Schwartz by Hyder's people that it would endanger addressed the Society from Tanjore, in- their lives if they dared to take it back. forming them of the increase of his con- He then expressed a desire to return it in gregation, as well from Hindus as from person, but he was told that it was conRoman Catholics ; that the schools were trary to etiquette to re-admit him into kept up; and that be had united a Eu- Hyder's presence, after having his auropean captain, in the service of the Rajah, dience of leave, or to receive his written to the daughter of another of his officers, representation on the subject; that Hy: in holy matrimony, in the presence of the der, knowing a great present would offend Rajah and of many people, who were Mr. Schwartz, had purposely confined it pleased with the ceremony, and with a only to the lowest amount of travelling ersermon preached by him on the occasion. penses, &c. Schwartz produced the moAt this time Schwartz had increased his ney to the government at Madras, but was number of catechists, by engaging two per- desired by them to keep it. Thus soli. sons, one of whom was Sattianaden, who cited, he retained the money, and approwas afterwards ordained, and became a priated it to be the nucleus of a fund for zealous and judicious minister.
building the church, and for the establish. In 1773 the fort of Tanjore was taken ment of charity schools at Tanjore. The possession of in the name of the Nabob government further resolved that he of the Carnatic, and from that time till should be supplied with bricks and lime, 1776, when it was restored to the Rajah, and granted to himself at Tanjore, and to little encouragement was afforded to the Mr. Poble at Trichinopoly, 1001. per anlabours of the Christian missionary. Upon num each, as chaplains to the English the restoration of the Rajah, endeavours garrison. Of his allowance, Schwartz were made to raise by subscription a sum paid half to Mr. Kohlhoff, his coadjutor sufficient for building a church. Mr. in the mission, and appropriated the reSchwartz, learning that it was in the con- mainder to the support of native teachers. templation of government to grant him a Mr. Pohle also made use of his allowance sum of money for having done the duty of for the benefit of congregations and schools. a chaplain in camp, he wrote to Madras, The church at Tanjore was thus comdeclining any present for himself, but re- pleted in the beginning of 1780, when questing to be furnished with bricks and it was consecrated, and called Christ lime towards building the church. Shortly Church. after, Schwartz was summoned to Madras, The succeeding years were marked by to attend the governor, Sir Thomas Rum- the various calamities of war and famine; bold, on business of importance. On his but these visitations enabled Schwartz to arrival at the presidency, he found, to his exhibit the Christian character in so bright surprise, that he was solicited to under- a light, that he gained the entire confi. take a confidential mission to Hyder Ally dence and affectionate regard of all, wbe. at Seringapatam, for the purpose of disco- ther natives or Europeans, who witnessed vering whether he had any immediate in- bis indefatigable benevolence, his unbletention of proceeding to open hostility, mished integrity, and the wisdom and and to assure him of the pacific views of prudence of his conduct. the British government.
In 1786 Schwartz was requested, by the assigned by Sir Thomas Ruinbold for pro- government of Madras, to be a member of posing this mission to Mr. Schwartz, be- a committee appointed to investigate the sides his acquaintance with the languages, state of the country, as there was no man and the secrecy with which the service who knew so much of the real condition could be performed by one of so unosten- and feelings of the inhabitants as he did. tatious a character, were, that the govern. The Rajah was at that time in a very inment were convinced that he would act firm state of health, and shortly afterdisinterestedly, and would not allow any wards feeling the approach of death, he one to bribe him; adding, that as the in- was anxious to commit his adopted son, tention of the journey was good and Chris- the present Rajah, then about nine or tian, namely, to prevent the effusion of ten years old, io his sole guardianship buman blood, and to preserve the country Schwartz declined the trust, from a con. in peace, the commission militated not sciousness that he could not efficiently against, but would highly become, bis sa- discharge it consistently with his other cred office. Schwartz resolved not to de- duties. The young prince ever looked cline the duty proposed to him, determin- up with filial 'affection to Schwartz, and, ing, however, to receive no remuneration extending his patronage and regard to his except his travelling expenses. His re- coadjutors and successors, greatly contriception from Hyder was gracious and buted to the permanent establishment and kind, and he executed bis mission to the extension of the Protestant mission at satisfaction of the English government and around Tanjore. After taking his leave, he found that Hyder From this time the Tanjore mission
gradually extended itself around its chief Rajah, had desired to place under the seat, which was the residence of Schwartz; guardianship of the venerable missionary. and by donations of money and land a Amer Sing had held the reins of gofund was provided, from which the sup- vernment at Tanjore from the death of port of teachers and catechists was de. Tulja till he was set aside, and Serfogee frayed, and chapels and school-rooms succeeded, in 1798. From the time of his were built at places, some contiguous to accession, the kindness of his Highness some at a considerable distance from, the to the Protestant missions has been markfort and town. The missionaries made ed and unceasing. In 1802 he visited frequent visits to these institutions, allot- Tranquebar. In several conversations ting to them such portion of their time with the senior missionary, he discovered and care as could be spared from the su- the most tender and filial remembrance perior requisitions of the principal esta- of the late Mr. Schwartz, and expressed blishment,
much friendship for Messrs. Gerické and It does not appear at what time Tinni- Koblhoff, and for all the missionaries, in velly was first visited by the Protestant whom he discovered the same sentiments missionaries, but in 1785 there was a and zeal ; expressing his wish that none Christian congregation collected at Pa- but such as would follow the steps of Mr. lamcotta, one of its chief towns, of 100 Schwartz, and were like him at least in persons, to whom Mr. Schwartz sent one piety, might be sent out to the mission. of his catechists. Sattianaden had the The loss of such a man as Schwartz care of the congregation. A school was could not but be severely felt by his brolikewise established, and a schoolmaster ther missionaries, as well as by all over provided ; and both catechist and school- whom his pastoral care had extended. But master received their salaries from Mr. he left behind him great and good men, deSchwartz.
voted to the cause in which they were enPalamcotta is a fort at a distance of gaged, humble, laborious, and learned. 200 miles south from Tanjore; it belonged Such especially was Gerické, who died at at that time to the Nabob, but had an Vellore in 1803, in the sixty-second year English garrison. One of the country of his age. The venerable Kohlhoff had priests visited the congregation annually, died in 1791, at the advanced age of eighty. for the administration of the sacraments. His son, now aged, survives, and has the The English Liturgy was translated, and superintendance of the Tanjore missionused regularly before sermon.
ary institutions, and the dispensation of In 1792, Palamcotta and the district of the Rajah's bounty to the Christian poor. Tinnivelly were visited by Mr. Joenické, Thus established, the several missionary from Tanjore; and he then reported that stations improved or fell off as their pasthe Christians generally resided in the tors attended to or neglected their flock. country, and formed several congrega. Each principal station formed a mother tions. For the use of those at Padpana- church, having a number of smaller condaburam, and at Parani, he had erected gregations dependent upon itself, and gosome chapels, at the expense of Mr. verned by its missionary head, aided by Schwartz. Many of those converts were native priests, ordained by the missionChristians, not in name only, but in re- aries, according to the rites of the Luality. “ There is every reason to hope," theran church. he observes, “ that at a future period We have thus brought down the history Christianity will prevail in the Tinnivelly of these memorable missions to the period country.” Joenické and Sattianaden had of the establishment of the Episcopate in severally made journeys into parts of the India. Their subsequent annals are more country where the word of God had fresh in the memory of our readers, and never before been preached, and the peo- less need recapitulation; but as they are ple were generally attentive, and desirous very interesting, we may probably in some of hearing: they assembled in hundreds, future Number offer a digest of them. For and shewed the missionaries every respect. a long period the missionary field in India
While the extension of Christian know- was occupied exclusively by the venerable ledge was thus quietly and unostentatious. Society for promoting Christian Knowly proceeding, the missions were deprived ledge, but of late years other missionaries of their most valuable member, by the have shared their labours and successes ; death of the excellent Schwartz, in 1798, and never were the prospects so bright as in the seventy-second year of his age. The at the present moment. 'Yet to this hour, greatest anxiety had been expressed at his though the fields are whitening to the illness, and the gre est respect was shewn harvest, the labourers are few. May the at his death by Serfojee Rajah, the young Lord of the harvest send forth more la. prince, whom his adoptive father "Tulja bourers into his harvest !