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for the redemption of " transgres- filled at the time, and by the death, sions which were under the first of Christ, and in this sense is procovenant." This seems to be a re- perly called the new covenant; as publication of the promise of eternal indeed it is in itself posterior to the inheritance, or of the diaonan of pro- first covenant of works: the one mises to Abraham.
having respect to Adam perfect, the Viewing now these two remark- other to Adam fallen. able passages together, we seem to Enough, then, may be here said arrive at the same two, and only thoroughly to reconcile, as well as two distinct dispensations, cove- to set in a clear light, the several nants, or testaments-namely, first, declarations in the Epistles to the the covenant of promises made to Galatians and to the Hebrews. But Abraham, and republished anew in some general remarks, tending to the death of Christ for the redemp- further elucidation, are now to be tion of transgressions ; secondly, the added. covenant of the law superadded 1. Our translators have comto the former, for a time, because mitted an error, which they very of transgressions. Or the statement seldom do ; and a very considerable may be reversed: We have two one, though in goodly company with covenants namely, The first co- others, in translating diaonan covevenant, with transgressions under nant in Galatians, and testament it, said in the Hebrews to have in Hebrews. Their impression, no been dedicated anew by Moses doubt, was that which added, with blood; being also that called, it may be said, inextricable conin Galatians, the law, added because fusion to the passage in Hebrews of transgressions, ordained by means as it stands-namely, that a testaof a mediator. Next, the new or mentary bequest is the allusion insecond covenant, that of promise, tended in the passage; for which republished by it, made with Abra- there is, it is presumed, no possible ham and his seed, and sealed in his ground, together with most insudeath; of which Jesus is expressly perable objections against it. said to be the Mediator.
2. The skilful and correct nota- 3* Comparing these two covenants tion of the Apostle in both the together, they seem both to have a Epistles is much to be observed. double aspect. The first covenant, He does not to the Galatians call that of the law called in Hebrews, the law" by the term dainka; first, and old, seems to refer to the because he speaks of it only as a original law of works, broken by superadded dispensation for a time, the transgressions of Adam and his and not as a republication of the posterity, and to be expiated by the first covenant of works, which is the redemption of the death of Christ. view taken of it in the Hebrews. But it seems also to refer to the On the other hand, he does not to dedication anew of that law, added, the Hebrews call the original “proas 'if a second dispensation, by mise of eternal inheritance," at first, Moses, because of transgressions; by the term diaOnan; because it did those very transgressions above, not become technically a covenant, which it was necessary to explain till it was actually sealed and fuland bring home to the conscience filled in the death of Christ ; which and fears of the Mosaic worshipper. death was throughout the Hebrews -The true second covenant; that the very point of its comparison of promise, was clearly revealed of with the first covenant. Hence the old to Abraham, as a remedy and a word diaOnkn, covenant, occurs only blessing, after his conscious experi- once to the Galatians, in applicaence, doubtless, of the transgres- tion to the ancient and unbroken sions under the first covenant. It line of promises, all centering in the was, however, republished and ful. one Seed, even Christ. It occurs,
however, in its proper place twice should rather, by associating it with to the Hebrews, where the whole “ Mediator," have seen at once it question of atonement is more fully could not mean a testator :" “ for brought forward, and both cove- what testator of a will," as Macnants in all their circumstances knight properly asks,“ was ever brought under view; having been mediator to his own testament ?" reserved in its application to the co- Mediator and Disposer are here venant of promise, till the mention evidently identical, and both are of its being sealed by the death of belonging to Christ, whose death Christ. So by Christ bimself this was · necessary by virtue of those dispensation is denominated at his offices. This therefore at once leads death Kairn diaOnın (Matt. xxvi. 28). to the view of the ancient mode of
3. It might have been very diffi- striking a covenant, which was raticult beforehand to have determined fied, confirmed, or disposed and set, the proper use of the word "trans- by a mediating sacrifice. The sagressions," as used to the Gala- crifice was stricken as the Mediator tians, and implying a reason for the and Disposer ; Megins and Avaleaddition of the law by Moses. But hevos, To use the latter word in " the temporary restraint of the a passive sense, seems to be peJewish people by its means from culiar to Macknight, meaning ihe transgression," as the expression is “ appointed” sacrifice. The sense understood by some persons, can
is unaltered, but the grammar unsurely appear no longer a necessary doubtedly is corrupted, by the or right interpretation, when we change. The word seems uniformconsider the use of the same word, ly middle or active; and is once in the parallel passage, by the same used in a passage of Appian, given Apostle to the Hebrews. The sense by Scapula, and quoted by Pierce has been justly, expressed by others, and Parkhurst in the very sense of $. It was added because the Is- the “ Pacifier.". raelites were transgressors as well 5. The use of Mediator by the as other men, to shew them their Apostle to the Galatians may possins, and the punishment incurred sibly from hence be illustrated; by them.” Thus did the law or though it is difficult there to deter“ first covenant" slew the transgres- mine any thing. “ Mediator” is, sions which were redeemed or atoned by the same Apostle, when writing for by means of death under the to the Hebrews, applied to Christ, “ new, or second covenant." the mediating, disposing, or paci
4. The use of the term, “ medi. fying sacrifice. Is it not therefore ator," is here to be examined. probable that lie uses the same In Galatians, the law, or “ first word analogously to the Galatians ? covenant," was ordained “ by means The law was “ordained, dearayeus, of a mediator ;" and the " mediator by angels, in the hand,” or by the is not of one.” In Hebrews, we means, “ of a mediator.” “ Now,the read that “ Jesus is the Mediator mediator is not of one, but God is of the new covenant ;” where it is one." The law, though not öratiimplied also, that as a Mediator he θεμενος as a διαθηκη was still διαταdied: which, however, in the next yels as a kind of covenant, and so verse leads to the open declaration, called to the Hebrews; and, being that “ wherever there is a covenant, of that nature, required a Mediator, there must always be the death of a Disposer, or Pacifier, between the testator, to dia euers.” Hence the contracting parties, whose death the Mediator, and the drabɛjevog should seal their contract. What are by implication the same: and death then was there under the whilst our translators, by taking Mosaic Law, to answer this, condida sueros [Disposer] alone, havé tion ? Neither that of Moses surely, rendered it by“ testator :" they nor of the high priest. But let the
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Apostle to the Hebrews reply to figures within a few verses of each the question : “ A covenant is of other, as the close observers of the force over the dead...whereupon original cannot fail of having freneither the first covenant was de. quently remarked. With no direct dicated anew without blood. For necessity in argument, for introwhen Moses had spoken, &c. he ducing the subject of a Mediator at took the blood of calves, and of all in the latter verse, the Apostle goats, with water, and scarlet wool, yet seems to have recurred in his and hyssop, and sprinkled both the own mind to that unity of mediation book and all the people, saying, which, as being the one seed of This is the blood of the covenant Abraham, he had attributed to Jesus which God hath enjoined to you." in the former sense : and that recolDo not these words of the Apostle lection seems to have suggested to necessarily lead us to the conclu- his mind this rapid parenthesis in sion, that the blood of the sacrifices, verse 20: “ Now the mediator (of or rather the sacrifices themselves, the law] is not of one, (as the seed formed the mediator of the law, or of Abraham, namely, Christ, is one the “ first covenant;" as Jesus him- seed), but of many" [sacrifices,&c.] self constituted the Mediator of the Leaving to your readers to forin “ new covenant."
their own conclusions from the above Now, says the Apostle, speaking comparison, I will only add, that of the mediator of the first cove- if any light shall have been added nant, or law, “ The mediator here, to the admitted duty and advantage is not of one: but God is one. in scriptural studies, of comparing The mediator of the law was not spiritual things with spiritual ; or if of one, but of many sacrifices, any confirmation shall have been making up together the one media. afforded to the acknowledged fact torial office. But God, when he of St. Paul having been the author undertakes to be his own Mediator of the Epistle to the Hebrews, as in covenant with man, is one-not well as of others more clearly bearthat he should offer himself often, ing the sign manual of his authoras “the high priest entereth into the ship, one great end will have been holy place with the blood of others attained for which this communica...but now, once in the end of the tion has been offered.
H. world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.” The difference in the two cases, if requiring illustration, might be illus
THE FEAR OF DEATH IN BELIEVERS. trated by the ordinance of the two goats for a sin-offering (Levit. xvi. Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. 8_10). On reading this passage, are we not struck at once by a pos. As the design of the Gospel is to sible analogy in it with the expres- “ bring life and immortality to sion of the Apostle : “ Now the light," it would almost seem a mediator [of the law] is not of natural effect of its influence in the one ; but God is one ?"
soul to dissipate the fears of death. The reference to a numerical There is an obvious inconsistency, unity in a former verse, to which which the scorner does not fail to allusion has already been made, remark, in professing to have an here also comes in to assist in illus- “inheritance,” “a treasure," and an tration. “ He saith not, And to eternal “rest” in heaven, while, at seeds, as of many; but as of one, the same time, we approach the And to thy seed, which is Christ” confines of our “ Father's house" (Gal. iii. 16). This very much agrees with reluctance and dismay. The with the usual practice of St. Paul, prospect of earthly good raises hope who often repeats expressions and and confidence just in proportion as it is near and accessible: why should really inadequate to contend with not the same rule invariably apply the disorders of the nerves and with regard to "the things which are brain ! eternal ?"
With equal want of success shall Besides, the word of God abounds we attempt to draw an imaginary with explicit declarations, to the line between the physical and the effect that the believer needs not moral fear of death; between the be, and therefore ought not to be, dread of death itself, and apprethe subject of painful anxiety with hension for its consequences. The regard to death, whether in distant fear of death is, in general, a comprospect or upon its near approach. pound of these two anxieties : and It is declared, that one of the great it may be questioned whether the designs to be accomplished by the former—that is, the mere instinctive incarnation of the Son of God was dread of pain and dissolution--could to dissipate the fears of death :- ever assume a very formidable as“ Forasmuch, then, as the children pect, if it were not assisted by the are partakers of flesh and blood, he latter. But the question is, not also himself likewise took part of how the disease originates, but the same ; that, through death, he whether the Gospel does not afford might destroy him that had the a remedy of infallible power, and, power of death, that is, the devil; perhaps, universal application. and deliver them who, through fear I will now endeavour to specify a of death, were all their life-time few of the leading causes of this subject to bondage" (Heb. ii. 14, 15: fearful disorder of the soul. The see also Isai. xliii
. 1, 2 ; Hos. ordinary sources of mental disxiii. 14; Psa. xxiii. 4, Ixxiii. 26 ; turbance in the prospect of death I Rom. viii. 38, 39; 1 Cor. iii, 22; pass by without remark. It is of Phil, i. 23; 2 Tim. iv. 6).
the dread of death, not in the gay, The death-beds of some of the the worldly, or the lukewarm, that most eminent saints of the present I speak: our inquiries will be conage have been such, as rather to fined within a closer range; it will afford a contrast to these cheering embrace those causes only which promises, than an illustration of may exist in connexion with conthem. They have been rather ex- sistent and decided piety, . ceptions than examples : and, if my 1. Defective views of the Saviour limited acquaintance with the church are a prolific source of such misof Christ has led me to a just con- givings. Nor is this an error to clusion, the servile fear of death is which the real Christian is at all a spectre which destroys the peace times superior. That simple, corof numbers who are spiritually dial trust in Christ which places united to the Saviour, and is the man in a condition to receive the terror of the church at large.
fulfilment of the promises, is, perTo trace the evil to its source is haps, one of the last and highest of the more requisite, because the ex, the attainments of the believer. In planations too often given are, I the early stages of his Christian life, conceive, unsatisfactory if not in- he is constantly disposed, through applicable. To lay the fault upon the mere effect, it may be, of a the nervous system, is to make the corrupt nature, and confirmed men, promise of God of none effect to tal habits, to withdraw his dependthis class of sufferers : unless, in- ence from the cross of Christ. In deed, we are prepared to shew that a moment of alarm he flies, with an the promises of the Gospel were alacrity almost instinctive, not to it either not designed originally to but from it. There is something to extend to the believer when he most the inexperienced Christian at once requires them ; that is, in sickness so new and hazardous in simple and depression; or that they are faith, that, although the judgment CHRIST. Observ. No. 348.
approves, the active powers rebel. weapons he is not allowed to hurl, Thus, in the hour of devotion he and flash the lightning, although places himself implicitly under the the thunderbolt no longer follows it. Saviour's guidance, and acknow. May not many of the true servanis ledges his own total helplessness; of God, who are constantly debut in the hour of trial, especially pressed, thus trace their sufferings if it be unlooked for, he is distrust- to the devices of their spiritual ful and alarmed, and takes refuge enemy ? Happily, no doubt, for us, in the crazy fortress of human we are kept in ignorance of the reasonings and self-sufficient reso- mode in which Satan finds access lutions.
to the soul; and in many cases it Thus, if “ the fears of death get is impossible for the most expehold on us," instead of humbly re- rienced Christian to ascertain the lying on the Saviour, and gathering existence of external temptation with consolation from the assurances of such precision, as to distinguish it his word, we allow the mind to dwell from the self-originating movements upon the subject in all its most dis- of his own mind. Hence much con. tressing forms: we speculate and fusion arises; and it is probable reason, where we ought to trust. We that the believer often charges himcall up the phantoms of the charnel self with guilt, when he has only house'; or, looking inward, we gaze been assailed by the accuser of the upon the more frightful forms of our brethren : and, like his Master, has natural corruption, when our busi- been tempted, " yet without sin." ness is to flee for security beneath I know not then, how we may the shield of One who is the Con- infallibly discover whether our fears queror of death and hell. With all of death are the consequence of this is mingled a copious infusion of Satanic influence or not. May we those waters of bitterness, the anx- not be justified in suspecting at least ieties arising from our personal de. that such is the fact, when, after a merit, and our painful sense of it. close and solemn investigation, we In such a state we are utterly dis- cannot trace them to any other qualified to enjoy the peace of God. source; to a defect of faith, or an We have surrounded ourselves with inconsistent profession ? the sparks of our own kindling, When the servile fear of death is when it was our privilege to “ walk the effect of temptation, it will often in the light of the Lord.” We happen, that if we are unacquainted agitate the waters, and complain with the source of our disquiet, we that they are troubled. We retire shall rather aggravate than remove from the guardianship of Christ, it. Farewell to our tranquillity, if and are alarmed to find ourselves in we charge the nervous system, or a tempestuous night, upon the wide indict the imagination, with the fault; ocean of uncertainty.
or if we seek in society, or medical 2. In such a state of mind we assistance, that relief which only are peculiarly exposed to the violence the Physician of the soul can be of temptation; and this appears to stow. Our great enemy will perbe another source of disquietude. ceive with exultation, that our conWe need not be surprised that our vulsive struggles entangle us more spiritual enemy should display more firmly in his web; that they exhaust than even his wonted skill and vi.
our strength, and confirm our degour, when he assaults us with these pression, without so much as adding weapons. Death is his grand en- to our experience. gine; his last resource, his master- 3. A third cause of this distress. piece of policy. “ The power of ing evil may perhaps be found in the death" was his by right; or at least, peculiar character which is stamped by unchallenged tenure, until the upon the religion of the times. Son of God - destroyed him." He Between the religion of Usher, will still, as it were, brandish the Howe, and Baxter, and that of the