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other; for the Christian is required the pure word of God, unmingled to perform all his duties as unto with the alloy of imperfection and God, and not unto man.

error to which the best sermon is To represent public prayer as not liable. The reading the Scriptures so edifying as private prayer, seems forms the largest portion of what to me an unnecessary and unscrip- are called the public prayers. But tural disparagement of this great further : every sentence of the prayduty. I would not institute any ers themselves is also preaching ; comparison between the importance second in authority and power to the of two essential means of grace. Scriptures alone. Our Liturgy comAnd before the writer of the re- prehends all the doctrines which, marks in question had promulgated from the primitive ages, the church his opinion, he should have reflected, has received, and maintained, and that, when two or three agree in transmitted ; and urges them in a prayer, Christ is in the midst of simple, yet most persuasive manner. them, and has graciously promised Let it not be stigmatized as special that his Father will fulfil their re- pleading, when I assert that the quests. Now, as the benefit of appointed services are preaching. prayer to individuals results, not The writer whose remarks I am from any virtue inherent in the act considering has compelled me to of prayer itself, but from the bless- take this ground: he has placed in ing of God on his own ordinance; contrast public prayer and preachas that ordinance is the great out- ing: his argument implies, that the ward means by which the unity of lady can hear preaching only by church-membership is consolidated; forsaking her parish-church. The and as the establishment and pre- charge of special pleading would servation of church-membership ne- fall much more justly on a distinccessarily involve the growth of love, tion which classes the Psalms, the peace, long-suffering, gentleness, Lessons, the Commandments, the and goodness,—which are empha. Epistle and Gospel, the Creeds, and tically “ fruits of the Spirit," and the authoritative declarations of the therefore most “efficacious to indi- Absolution, under the head of prayer, viduals "-I arrive at the conclusion merely because they are read in a that solitary prayer is not more be- surplice and arranged in the serviceneficial to the individual than joint book (as, indeed, is the sermon prayer ; and must regard the posi- itself ) amidst the “ forms of prayer.” tion as utterly untenable. It has The common periphrasis for the been affirmed, but I think very un- duties of preacher and hearer gives justly, that the Evangelical clergy a more correct notion : it is, to are disposed to think lightly of preach and hear the word of God. public and appointed prayers ; to The expression is just; for it intiesteem them as

a mere peg on mates, that what exalts preaching which to hang the sermon : and I into the rank of a means of grace should greatly regret to find any is its faithful statement of Scripture ground furnished for such an im- truths, its repetition of Scripture putation.

arguments, and its narrative of Perhaps the implication was made Scripture examples. It were, then, to weaken an answer, of the force highly unreasonable, if all which of which the writer must have been constitutes the excellence of our conscious, That, by the admirable otherwise worthless discourses were constitution of our services, the absolutely dismissed from our defimost valuable part of preaching has nition of that preaching which a been secured to the people : so woman is bound to attend in spite that, unless in extreme, and I be- of the displeasure of husband or lieve very rare, cases, all must hear father, under pain of the “woe”

denounced against her “ if she hear this unhappy predicament, the ad. not the Gospel," p. 394.*

vice should have been special and I acknowledge that the statement private. Many females who read it given of the “fundamental doc- will infer that the clergy of the trines of Christianity " is orthodox, Establishment are divided by a broad temperate, and judicious ; and I line, distinguishable by every onecannot but deeply lament, when I into those who preach the Gospel, read that ministers of our church and those who preach it not. They are “far” from preaching them. I will, without hesitation, determine hope that the accusation has been for themselves respecting their taken up on the testimony of some parish minister : many non-essentials enemy of our Zion : for it must will be pressed into the account, be recollected that the writer is him- such as want of eloquence in lanself busily employed in his sacred guage or elegance of manner, inaoffice ; he has, therefore, few or nobility to preach extempore, a sparing opportunities of frequenting churches use of favourite theological expreswhose ministers labour under this sions, a short sermon, or a sermon heavy accusation, and of judging without formal divisions or pointed for himself. If, however, he is con- application. I am not discussing vinced that the lady is placed in the fitness or unfitness of such

• There is a silent and most efficacious particulars; but I believe that preacher, to whom, if we can read, we

numbers will rashly decide from may have access almost at any hour: I these obvious but not essential dismean, the written word of God; and, in tinctions, who are incapable of subordination to it, the writings of pious judging soundly as to the doctrine and sound judging Christians. In enumerating the means of grace, reading the of the preacher; and will determine word is, with great propriety, distinguished that they are in conscience bound from hearing it ; for, by the constitution to desert him, and to adhere to of our nature, the mind is very differently affected by these two modes of addressing brity. It should never be forgotten,

some other of acknowledged celeit. One of them, therefore, ought not to supercede the other : we are diligently to

that the clergy of the Establishment attend to both, as opportunity is minis- are bound to preach all the doctrines tered. But still both are preaching ; both enumerated in the document under of them instruct and persuade ; and in the due use of one

alone, where the other review, by the most solemn engageis denied, salvation may be attained. But ments, and that very few will deny salvation is unattainable if mea are ex- this obligation: but that, in consecluded from both : for “ how shall they quence of the vast difference which call on Him in whom they have not be- the Creator has been pleased to lieved ? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard ? and how establish between the abilities and sball they hear without a preacher ?"(Rom. opportunities of men, between their dered themselves

as preaching when they their manner of apprehending truth, x. 14.). "Indisputably, the Apostles consi- tempers and dispositions, between wrote, as much as when they spoke : St. Peter uses a like expression respecting and also of declaring it to others, the the remembrance which he had prepared fundamental doctrines of our relifor his dock after his decease, as he em- gion must always be brought forward, put off his earthly tabernacle (2 Pet. i. by men of equal orthodoxy and 12–15. St. Paul could not preach more piety, with very various degrees of argumentatively or more persuasively excellence. Happy they who have than he wrote. In his Episties, he, being the privilege of listening every dead, yet speaketh; and so do all those Sunday to him whom an enlightened tions have been the glory and the guide judgment most approves ! I do not of the Christian pilgrim. Much, then, envy his well-earned and useful worthy to be dignified with the title of popularity : I demur only to the by every member of the Church of Eng: supposed necessity that all should land, even under the most unfavourable crowd to his church. circumstances for edification.

The illustration from the case of

the Apostles, which is thought an things, not words. This expression indisputable proof, wants the main might imply that the wife submits : feature of resemblance. Without but, no; “ even in this case the urging that their mission was, from command of God is the paramount the necessity of the case, unlimited obligation.” I believe that I do and universal-embracing especially not misrepresent these conclusions, the Jews and all the inhabitants of when I put them into definite lanJerusalem-I would point out, that guage. The command of God, the difference between them and which binds on daughters and wives their opponents was of a nature the duty of being subject to their which no one could misunderstand respective parents and husbands in or misrepresent, and is in this par. all things, must be violated, in obeticular essentially different from the dience to a still higher duty, if in case under consideration. They the woman's judgment the sermons maintained that Jesus was the Son of her parish minister are not sufof God and the promised Christ: ficiently evangelical, and permission the high priests staked their cha- to attend the ministry of a clergyracter and credit on the assertion man unconnected with her parish that this same blessed Jesus was an be refused. impostor and a traitor, who deserved Possibly some special case of the ignominious death which he had glaring tyranny at home, and irrerecently suffered. It is not, I am ligion in the church, may exist, sure, intended to draw any parallel which justifies the overthrow of dobetween this opposition of lightmestic peace here demanded under and darkness, of God and Satan, the fearful penalty of woe from God. and those differences which un- Such instances, however, are so exhappily split into parties the minis. tremely rare, that the writer himself ters of the Church of England. says “in almost every case” the sad There is room enough for illustrating necessity of disobedience may be the importance of those differences escaped. Is it not, then, unwise to without an insinuation so unchari- provide before hand these plausitable and unjust. But if no such ble generalities for vindicating the insinuation be meant, the intro- weaker party in the adoption of it ? duction of the Apostles' case simply It is an alarming symptom of the proves that God is to be obeyed prevalent notions respecting ecclerather than man; a position to siastical discipline, that not even a which every Christian will, without hint of the relation of curate and a text, heartily assent.

people—which the division of EngThe “concessions to legitimate land into parishes, and the exclusive authority,” recommended at the committal of the cure of souls to one close of the paper, are smooth in individual, create-is to be found sound : discretion and delicacy are throughout the paper. The minister enjoined. But what are the con- is the minister of Christians in gecessions specified? Absolutely none. neral, of as many as will come to The opposition of the daughter musthear him; and all, it seems, are be unbending : the manner of con- bound to hear him, if he preach the ducting it, indeed, must be kind, re- Gospel. We country clergymen are spectful, conciliating, dispassionate. grieved to contemplate such a radiThis is good advice, so far as it goes; cal change of sentiment among any but it is not concession. The case of our brethren of the same church. of the wife is obscurely worded. A We are aware that it must be traced “conflict” is spoken of, “ terminat- principally to the enormous increase ing in a painful struggle.” The of population in large towns, parconflict and the struggle appear to ticularly in London. The only me the same thing : but I criticise adequate remedy for the confusion substance, rather than shadow: which thus makes men, orthodox in, doctrine, dissenters as to order and with them, or talking to them? discipline, is in a general consecra- laying down many rules, or speaking tion of the chapels of the Establish- often in a familiar manner ? In any ment, and the appointment of a case where the heart of a servant definite district to the minister of has been brought from sin to holieach of them.

T. B.

ness, what have been the special means which God has blessed ?

What books do experienced Chris

tians recommend for persons in QUERY AS TO THE BEST MODE OF various states of mind for the INSTRUCTING SERVANTS, &c. very ignorant, for the careless,

for the young, the middle-aged, the Tothe EditoroftheChristian Observer. old ? A list of these, according to

what has been adequately tried and Having been a constant reader of found useful, would be very valuand subscriber to your work for able. So, again, suggestions relative twenty-eight years, and hoping that to the best way of conducting ourI may date my taste for such sub. selves towards children, friends, jects as sanctify its pages almost tradesmen, and others. I merely from the same period, I feel encou- mention these as examples: but I raged to address you with the fol. would say, let all advice begrounded lowing suggestions.

on experience, rather than theory. As I advance in years, it strikes Perhaps I may hope that in some me there is one assistance in life manner you will bring the subject more than any other which Chris- before your readers ; and if this tians want. It is not doctrine ; it feeble suggestion should tend to is not criticism; it is not enlarged the growth of Christian practice knowledge and discrimination : all and holiness in our families and in these are valuable ; but we have, our favoured land, I shall be thanko surely, an ample supply of them. ful. In this day of increasing Is it not practical directions for Gospel light it seems a most imthe various circumstances of private portant point that the Christian and social life, on Christian princi- life, in its every-day concerns, should ples, which we chiefly want ? And partake of this illuminating process. here, surely, all may benefit by if it does not, there must be somemutual experience : and might not thing delusive in the brilliancy of that experience be well communi- the fame.

QUINQUAGESIMA. cated through the pages of the Christian Observer? Many of those who began at your beginning, are, alas! unable to profit us here, USEFULNESS OF ANALOGY. though they are doubtless glorifying God above : but some remain ; and Tothe Editorofthe ChristianObserver. I could wish that those among them whom we justly revere would give As all our ideas are borrowed from us the advantage of their twenty- sensible objects ; and our most comeight years' experience.

plex as well as most sublimated As your correspondents may not ideas have been all originated by quite understand the nature of my what we have seen, heard, or felt ; request, I will mention one or two it is impossible to give any clear subjects on which I think mutual illustration of subjects which relate experience might assist Christian exclusively to mind and unseen practice. What, for example, have realities, except by way of analogy, been found the most efficacious I need not say how profoundly and means of instructing and regulating successfully Bishop Butler has emthe minds of servants ?-reading ployed analogical reasoning in de


monstration of religious truth: and sist with indulgence in any known we have the very highest authority sin, or in the habitual neglect of any for adopting this method of instruc- known duty, or be destitute of the tion in our blessed Saviour himself, fruits of holiness in the heart and life. who constantly explained his doc

J. C. trines by a reference to sensible objects and familiar occurrences ; and made large use of the kingdom of nature to illustrate the kingdom of grace.

From the subtile nature For the Christian Observer. of mind, and the impalpable basis of abstract thought, no truth purely Dr. Walsh gives us the following spiritual can be clearly and perma- Biblical illustrations in his “Journently fixed in the understanding, ney from Constantinople." without having recourse to analogy. « First the chouash, who acted as The sublime but difficult doctrine master of the feast, took a soft loaf, of supernatural agency co-existing called a flap of bread, for it folded and co-operating with the freedom up like a cloth, and breaking, or of the human will, was never better rather tearing it asunder, he threw illustrated than by reference to the the pieces to each of the guests : labours of the husbandman ; who then a metal bowl of soup was set ploughs his ground and sows his before us, which was soon dispatched seed, but who only expects to reap with wooden spoons: this was reby the influence of the sun and mo

moved, and a large savoury dish of rain; if that be withheld, his labours meat, with pultaceous sauce, was are useless : at the same time he is laid on. Every hand dipped in the certain that if he neglect to prepare dish, with a bit of bread between his ground he never can reap at all. the finger and thumb; the thumb Just so, the man who neglects the was then expanded, and a portion diligent use of the means appoint of the contents of the dish enclosed ed for his salvation, and waits for between it and the bread, and then Divine illumination and guidance, conveyed to the mouth. This mode will wait in vain ; while, on the of eating is another proof of the other hand, no diligence on his part immutability of Oriental customs : without that Divine aid would be it was thus the disciples supped of any avail. The inferences are when Christ • broke the bread' and such as these: That the whole system gave it to them; and Judas was of providence, as well as the entire designated by the circumstance. economy of grace, is designed to Mustapha had early in the keep man humble and dependant, morning asserted that it would rain but at the same time to incite before night. I asked him, why ? him to activity and gratitude: that He replied, that the wind was a proud, self-sufficient, indolent, or changing to the west. This is a more thankless temper of mind, is an sure indication of rain in the East insuperable bar to the influence of than in our uncertain climate, and true religion, and to all spiritual recalls the decided expression of improvement whatever : and, that it the Gospel, “When you see a cloud cannot be too frequently urged upon rise out of the west, you say there the consideration of Christians, that cometh a shower, and so it is.' His “ the tree is known by its fruit;" anticipation was justified; the rain that profession is nothing, if it con. now fell in torrents."

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