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of instruction is exclusively adopted. M. FELLENBERG; HIS SCHOOLS

According to the ages of pupils,

there are from six to eight hours (Continued from p. 302.) of sedentary employment. Boyish

sports are of course permitted, and In the survey of Hofwyl, the result gymnastics, not carried to a dancontemplated in even every minute gerous excess, compose part of the arrangement, and the practical man- daily exercise of the pupils. When ner in which the moral of education the weather is not too severe they is pursued, challenge notice. A so- also bathe, and learn to swim. licitous concern has been directed M. Fellenberg's eldest son, who to the tendency of measures, and superintended them whilst in the their effect on the character. The gymnasium, related to me an anec. appearance of constraint, except dote, which illustrates his father's that of a self-controuling kind, is as plans. One of the young gentlemen, much as possible banished. Study a fine ruddy youth, could not be is to be a pleasure, because a duty; induced to join in these trials of improvement is to be the reward of agility and strength with any toleapplication; and it consists with the rable degree of zest. However, it methods pursued, to take books happened that during a journey away, rather than to impose tasks, amongst the Alps, which some of for idleness. None are to be un. the pupils make on foot every Auoccupied even during play-hours*. gust, with one of M. Fellenberg's Variety of employment yields relax- sons, this lad soon became tired. ation at all seasons; and the youth. The cause of his suffering from faful frame is not to be wearied and tigue more than the rest, as arising jaded by a too protracted attention from his previous inactivity, was in one posture and to one subject. then pointed out to him; and he Emulation is not excluded; but it is has since been one of the best at not so excited as to be made the these exercises. Where M. Fellengreat spur to diligence. There is berg can, by any management, lead, no system of rewards by prizes: he never drives. He endeavours to mortifications contrived according apply those incentives to exertion, to the character of the individual, and that love of useful employment, constitute the principal punishnients. which will make idleness weariRemonstrances private are not some, and render his pupils indespared. The first boy is not exhi- pendent of extraneous excitement. bited, and the last is not exposed. He strongly inculcates a love of At meals the pupils of the Institute truth, teaching that falsehood and sit in rotation near M. Fellenberg, revenge spring from fear and base who presides; or according to an feelings. order he may specially prescribe. When any one is detected in For study, each young gentleman prevaricating, his answers on some has a convenient desk and compart. matter are privately set down, by ment. Under certain regulations one of the masters. After an inthe professors follow their own mode terval the same questions are put, of tuition; and no peculiar system and another view of the case is, per

haps, set forth. This course may Some of the young gentlemen have be pursued for a few weeks; the small gardens; and, by turns, they are

various contradictory statements are permitted to amuse themselves in the bookbinder's and joiner's working rooms.

then shewn to the offender, and

vigorous remonstrances are urged. garded for his lavish waste of leisure. The elder pupils are required to Were he, with his savage habits keep journals of their various trans- about him, transported to a civilized actions.

kingdom, and loaded with riches, he M. Fellenberg is very anxious to might be forgiven for losing them infuse into the minds of the pupils at play, or on the turf; or if, through the most just and delicate senti- mere listlessness, his days were eked ments, as regards the conduct that out as an itinerant from city to city, should be observed towards the fe- and from one watering place to male sex, with a profound respect another : but it is truly deplorable for their virtues and merit.

when the joys of roving Indians are It is a part of our philanthropist's estimated as the prime pastimes of plan to enlist taste on the side of life, by persons born in the midst of morality. To this end, and espe- refinement, and exempted, by wealth, cially where, from constitutional from toil. Such aberrations M. temperament or other causes, there Fellenberg would prevent, by leadis an aversion or a partial inability ing his more affluent pupils to unto follow intellectual or literary derstand the responsibilities which pursuits', the advantages which the devolve on superiority of station, institution affords for the cultivation and what are the real pleasures of a taste for music, drawing, che- and privileges which ennoble it. mistry, botany, natural history, me. He endeavours, by a paternal dischanics, or rural and agricultural cipline, and by the presentation economy, may be made decoys to of salutary incitements, to lead his other studies, and provide resources pupils to consider themselves cofor after life.

operators with their teachers. No In the cases of such as are to in- proficiency in any one department herit large possessions, it may prove of polite learning is to be up-held a great advantage to have been as the great goal at which all njust reared in the centre of benevolent strive to arrive ; and which, when designs, where practical exhorta- gained, will be a satisfactory testitions on the use of influence in bet- monial of ability. Sagacity is rather tering the condition of the working on the search to discover the man. classes of society, are preached with ner by which, in each individual, a devoted and an engaging sincerity. the foundation can be so secured, Incomparably happy and respecta- as that the student shall see how ble above the thoughtless of his little man can learn ; shall take a rank in society, must that landed pleasure throughout his future days proprietor be, who can discern, in in raising the superstructure of his the amelioration of his neighbour- own knowledge, and feel that he hood, nobler objects for his solici- benefits himself in proportion as tude than in the sports of the field he benefits others. Milton defines or the amusements of fashion. The that to be a coinplete and generous uninstructed savage who lives by education which fits a man to perthe chase, and whom intoxication form justly, skilfully, and magnaniand gambling delight above all mously, all the offices, both private things, may be more leniently re- and public, of peace and war. At

Hofwyl, scholastic instruction is in • The love of study drew from their the education of the rich, what repose, at one o'clock in the morning, the young Baron de Bissing, and the youngest digent. The sobriety of M. Fellen

manual labour is in that of the inthe Institute. Greek is a favourite lan- berg's views as to this latter section guage, and Homer a favourite book, at of his labours, will be shewn by the Hofwy! ; and it seems that the poet had following passage from one of his discovered, and of course sent to bed letters : "It is impossible that managain.

kind should fulfil the sphere allotted CHRIST, OBSERV No. 342.

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them, except by means of an intel. nations of rank, it would tend por. lectual, moral, and religious cultiva. erfully to confirm them. tion; conducive alike to individual But upon the point of moral edu. and domestic happiness, to national cation all are agreed. Vice and prosperity, and to the preservation discontent are twins. Apathy, as to of social order. In Europe, parti. decency of appearance and domestic cularly, the maintenance of public comfort, is either the precursor or the tranquillity must depend on the consequence of debasement. efforts made, that both rulers and state in life can wear its proper subjects may acquire such know. interest whilst a vague imagination ledge, virtues, and habits, as may perpetually prompts to evil indul. fit each for the station which Pro. gences.” In the case of the labourer vidence has assigned to them by or the mechanic, a timely occupation birth, and by the natural advantages of the mind with fit ideas, and of which may have respectively fallen the body with suitable employments, to their lot.

and an early acquaintance with the “By degrading the people," he resources and rational enjoyments continues, “ we dry up the richest of a humble condition, and those source of power, of wealth, and of which Christianity offers are open to happiness, which a state can possess: the poorest) may, M. Fellenberg nor will its safety be less endangered, thinks, make the humblest labourer when the mass of the people, but too dread a disreputable, and contend easily led astray while in a state of against a revolutionary, removal from moral and intellectual degradation, that station which it has pleased are agitated by any accidental cause. God to destine him to fill. But in The same evil will however result, all thickly peopled countries, unless attended with greater danger, from individual prudence and moral ha: the opposite error-of extending bits prevail, there cannot be maintoo widely the instruction of the tained that just proportion between lower classes, and thus creating, in the number of labourers, and the them, wants which it possesses no demand for their labour, by which power to satisfy. There is not an they may be preserved in a desirable error of more injurious influence on state of independence and respectathe happiness whether of individuals bility *. That the education, in the or of kingdoms. The friend of widest meaning of the word, of mankind can never succeed in the their children, may be satisfactorily accomplishment of his desires but finished, it is in M. Fellenberg's estiby respecting the order of things mation much more important to which he finds already established open the heart, to form the chawithout his concurrence, and per- racter, and to habituate to industry, mitted by the Supreme Governor than to charge the mernory, or even of the Universe."

to develop the mental faculties. I do not stop to inquire to what The testimony of M. Le Comte de extent the above sentiment is valid. Villevieille who watched the esta. It is widely entertained ; but some blishment for years, as to the result eminently enlighted and judicious of the prosecution of these ideas, is men doubt it. Dr. Chalmers, for set forth in an animated passage of example, has just preached in Lon- his report : "J'ai vu, j'ai vu (et cela don a discourse of great ability, to sans exception) tous les élèves sortis prove that popular education, even de l'ecole des pauvres d' Hofwyl, though it should not be religious, porter dans le monde un esprit de would still be a great, though not bienveillance et de paix, et je les ai then the greatest, blessing ; that it can never be too highly elevated ;

• Dr. Chalmers, in the 3d vol. of his and that, far from endangering the treated this subject in an elaborate and

valuable work on Civic Economy, has peace of society, and the subordi- most convincing manner.

vus, (ce qui doit être noté) réunir à parent, previous to the final dispera un très vif désire d'être utiles, un sion. mépris réel de toute prétension qui The monitors of this school are tendrait à les faire sortir de leur to act as elder brothers; and as a état.”

good elder brother would consult In M. Vehrli's school, the Pesta- a parent in cases of difficulty, and lozzian mode of instruction is prin- when the younger were impervious cipally followed ; and the most to his advice, so are they to make advanced pupils assist in teaching known to their master, who demeans the rest. Their time, during the himself as a father, whatever may week days in the summer, is thus have occurred that demands his divided: the boys rise at half past particular intervention. Goodwill four, assemble for their morning towards each other, and alacrity devotions, and if there be nothing in duty, now reign among these particular to engage them in the boys. The former destitution of fields, they are occupied with les- some of whom might have moved sons till half past six, when they the pity, if it could not have probreakfast. Vehrli, according to voked the activity, of persons of previous directions from M. Fellen- M. Fellenberg's rank. berg, then divides them into bands for The youths who continue with the day : some pick up stones, some him till they are grown up, can weed, some thresh, some tend the bave, at quitting, a tolerable sum, plough, dig, sow, or reap, as the accumulated by the means that are work of the farm may require. He taken to cherish providence, and to is sometimes with a number of them teach the proper use of money. in one place, and sometimes in ano. There is a savings bank, and inther; proving himself at once their terest is allowed on all deposits. fellow-labourer, their overseer, and The ability to lay up in it arises their preceptor. Their hour for from M. Fellenberg's new year's dinner is twelve ; after which, they gifts ; from the trifling reward given are in the school-room till half past for dexterity in catching vermin ; one. Rural labours, or learning from that bestowed for sowing seeds trades, again occupy them till six, with so careful a hand, that a greater except that there is a short inter- number of plants do not appear val for rest at four, when they take than ought ; and lastly, from their a slice of bread. After six they skill and industry in the small garusually have singing lessons : many dens that are allotted to them. of them play on instruments; and They cultivate these at their leisure they all learn hymns and select hours, and after the work of the day moral songs ; and a taste is sought is finished; and it is a pleasing to be formed, which will make thern spectacle to see them at their dislike licentious or inflammatory twilight labours. The vegetables ballads.—They sup at seven, then and seeds which they raise are sold they are at liberty to work in their to M. Fellenberg at a low price. little gardens, or to improve them- Their food is simple ; bread, poselves in the Before tatoes, and other vegetables ; soup, going to bed, M. Vehrli reads to milk, with meat once in the week. them a passage from some moral or Their appearance bespeaks health, religious book, or from the Bible: their countenances cheerfulness and he then recapitulates, and como vivacity; loitering and quarreling ments on, the prominent transac- seem to be pretty well excluded. tions of the day ; a prayer is offered They learn from the mouth of their up, and they go to bed. It is gra. teacher more than by books; and tifying to witness little and big things more than letters occupy their shaking hands with him, as with à attention. Order is strictly en. forced : their tools are all numbered, with light sports, to render them and regularly deposited in a suitable quick and nimble. place. When any thing is left about, Those not thoroughly acquainted M. Vehrli notices it the next oppor. with the theory of Hofwyl, might tunity, perhaps at meal-time, and be apt to attribute the success of inquires who has been so careless. this seminary for indigent boys too Falsehood is punished severely. The exclusively to the agency of Vehrli. only corporal chastisement is in Eulogy without discrimination has ficted on the hand with a ferula. been poured upon him ; whilst perM. Vehrli considers it good policy haps, his steady adherence to M. to allow them but few hours for the Fellenberg's principles of education pursuits of the school-room, as it has been overlooked. It is the comprovokes the liveliness of their ap. mendation which is due to excellence plication, and incites them to value of conduct that should be awarded the occasions for gaining knowledge. to M. Vehrli ; and not the admiThe proficiency of some of them, ration exacted by extraordinary in various branches of instruction, talent. Every man that is assiduous, fully justifies this mode of proce- persevering, and faithful, that is not dure. Some draw very well; and to be flattered by applause into rethe copy for drawing, of a class missness, indolence, or a prurient I saw at their occupation, was a restlessness, whatever may be his plough brought into the middle of rank, is equally a subject for encothe room.

In a familiar manner mium. M. Vehrli has good abilities, they also are taught the geography sound health, a benevolent dispoof Switzerland and the elements of sition, and has been improving himgeometry. A little boy will have self ever since he came to Hofwyl, as one of his first lessons in that in 1809. His influence over his science eight pieces of stick given scholars is not derived from the him; four are to be placed on the table countenance of his patron, so much horizontally, two perpendicularly, as from the quickness with which he two obliquely. M. Vehrli finds practically enforces, the coolness that these exercises make his boys and kindness with which he exethoughtful.

cutes, the clear method in which They have a museum, in which he exemplifies, and his thorough the plants, minerals, birds, and ani- knowledge of all he has been dimals found in the neigbourhood are rected to perform and to teach. He properly preserved and arranged. possesses the confidence of his boys; Additions are constantly made; and his example is an illustration of such as a new kind of grass, or a his precepts. To say more in favour good mineralogical specimen that of the moral worth of a man than may have been picked up. This can be truly said of Vehrli is hardly collection is not for what is exotic possible; but he has been tutored of any description ; and the wise by one who has perhaps studied the limitation M. Fellenberg assigns to moral of education more closely and all these kind of researches confines more successfully than any other the boys to those objects which person of modern days. As the they may have to handle, and will best illustration of his manner of see about them from time to time. fulfilling his duties, I purpose, in In the long evenings of winter, to my next paper, to transcribe some correct their patois *, they are interesting and characteristic pastaught good German ; and from sages from his own journal. For seven to eight amuse themselves the present, I conclude with sug

The different patois spoken in the gesting one remark, which I think several cantons is found to be inore than is of considerable importance, and a mere inconvenience.

very appropriate to the preceding

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