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while I beg to add, if I am wrong,

Verse 22 : • Raca,"_" Thou I wish to be corrected; if right, I fool." That is, “Thou empty fellow, wish to be myself, and to find others, whose hopes of salvation are unestablished.

founded : Thou fool, for believing what God has said." This language could only be used by an infidel and

a scoffer, who of course (dying in NOTES CRITICAL AND DEVOTIONAL unbelief and impenitence) cannot

be saved.

Verse 39: “ Whoever shall smite Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. thee on the right cheek, turn

to him the other also.” That is, I ENCLOSE a few brief critical notes rather than revenge it ; or, if it be on the Greek Testament, written not in a matter of persecution for righfor controversy but for devotion, teousness' sake, rather than flee from sometimes proposing a new trans- the line and path of duty. Jesus lation. If they should prove useful himself (the best exemplifier of his and acceptable to your readers, I own precepts), when smitten and shall feel pleasure in continuing buffeted, did not literally turn to them as occasion offers. I begin the smiter his other cheek, but with the Gospel of St. Matthew. meekly expostulated, “Why smitest

I. W. N. thou me?” The passage enjoins

meekness and forgiveness ; not a Matt. i. 23 : Menuwy o Ococ gratuitous and unnecessary courting God with us.-Socinians are said to of persecution or obloquy. lay great stress on the presence or Verse 43: " Thou shalt love absence of the Greek article ; and thy neighbour, and hate thine to maintain that coc signifies a god, enemy." The lawyers, corrupting or inferior deity; while 'o soc the word of God, and mistaking means The God, or Supreme God. its meaning, had added to the comWere this an infallible rule and mand, “ Thou shalt love thy neighdistinction, the unlettered Christian bour," the unsound inference, and may rejoice in being told that the hate thine enemy:" which God first time the word “God” is applied never intended, and Moses never to his Saviour it is 'O Deos, “ The wrote. God." See 1 Kings xviii. 39: Μatt. vi. 7: Μη βαττολογησητε, “ The Lord, he is The God : the WOTEP OL &Ivekol. " Do not BattoLord, he is The God."

logise;" or imitate either Battus,-a Matt. v. 3: “For of these is the noted Lacedæmonian, (whose absurd kingdom of heaven : ” that is, It is manner of speaking became procomposed of these: they are the verbial for tautology),-or the worpersons of whom the church or shippers of false gods, such as the kingdom is composed. So, ch. iii. priests of Baal, who (1 Kings xviii. 2, “ The kingdom of beaven is at 26) for several hours cried out, “O hand :" that is, the Gospel dispen- Baal, hear us! O Baal, hear us !" sation, or the reign of Grace. So and the Ephesians, who (Acts xix. Mark x. 14: “ For of such (that is, 34) repeatedly cried out, “Great is young children,) is the kingdom of Diana of the Ephesians! Great is heaven," or the church, composed. Diana of the Ephesians!” Moreover, Humility does not save us, any it is not against using repetitions more than any other Christian grace themselves that the Saviour speaks, or good work: but it is a qualifi- but against vain repetitions. cation for church membership, and,

Verse 24: “ No man can serve like all other Christian graces, a

two masters : " that is, two masfruit of the Spirit, and a part of our ters, either whose services require education for eternity.

all his time, or whose interests

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áre opposed to each other; as God being then only acceptable when in and Satan, Christ and the world. place and season. Matt. vi. 25: “ Take no thought," Ver. 16 : αγναφο"

new cloth : &c. : that is, no anxious or distrust that is, undressed : before it comes ful thought : be not anxiously so- out of the fuller's, or dresser's, hands, licitous, &c.

and, consequently, when unfit for Ver. 26: Are ye not much use, being hard and stiff. better than they ?” that is, more Ver. 17 : • New wine into old valuable. Sinners, viewed as fallen bottles :" that is, unfermented wine creatures, are even worse than the into old leathern or bladder bags : brute creation, which have not which were then used to carry sinned: but man, as possessed of liquids in, glass being then (if even speech and reason, soul and body, known) not in use for ordinary is a much nobler animal than any purposes. irrational creature (see ch. x. 31). Ver. 38: Expaly. “ Send forth," Besides, Christ is here speaking to rather, “ Thrust out: ” perhaps im. his disciples.

plying man's natural reluctance to Matt. viii. 9: Kal yap Eyw av

leave the comforts of home, and to θρωπος ειμι, κ. τ. λ.

« For I am a

brave the dangers incident to the man,' &c. " As I have power over

life of an apostle or missionary. the soldiers committed to my care Matt. xi. 25 : “ I thank thee, O and

government, and order Father, Lord of heaven and earth, them to go where 1 please to send because," &c. : or rather, “I thank them ; so Thou, who hast given to thee,” &c., “ that, having hid these thee power over all things, whether things from the wise and prudent, men, devils, or diseases, canst say thou hast revealed them unto babes:' to sickness "come,' or 'go, just as if he had said, “I thank thee as thou wilt, exert that power in (not for having hidden, &c., but) behalf of my servant.” Such is the "for revealing to the humble what force of the untranslated word kai. thou hast, in thy wisdom, hidden

Ver. 22 : αφες της νεκρες θαχαι τις from the worldly wise." See Romans EAUTWY vekpus“Let the dead bury vi. 17, which may be similarly elutheir dead: " that is, “Let the dead in cidated. sin discharge the necessary office for Matt. xii. 36: “Every idle word,” the dead body: but do thou, as the &c. : that is, every


ungrounded proof and result of thy being alive charge as ye bring against me, in to God, endeavour to quicken the supposing me to be in league with souls of the dead in sin to the life Satan : or every wantonly wicked, of righteousness.” Some, however, maliciously spoken, or immoral exsuggest the reading Jaxaol for pression, which tends to the slanSayae That is, “Leave the burial dering of truth, the encouragement of the dead to those whose trade and of vice, or the corruption of others. business it is.

Matt. xv.

5, 6: “Whosoever shall Matt. ix. 2: “Seeing their faith :" say,” &c.; or rather, “Whosoever not the faith of the paralytic, but of shall say to his father or his mother those who brought him. May not (when they are in need, and apply pious parents and pious sponsors to him for relief,) father, that is a hope from hence, that He who, for gift' already made to the priests or the sake of the bringers, had pity to the sanctuary (that is, Corban), on the person brought, will bless by which, if I had not promised the child which is brought to undergo or devoted it, thou mightest bave the rite of holy baptism enjoined by been benefited by me,' then he need Himself.

not support or relieve his parent ;'' Ver. 13. “And not sacrifice : thus teaching him to evade the that is, “ rather than sacrifice;" or, Divine command, and enrich the in preference to sacrifice : " duties avaricious priests.

Matt. xv. 26: 'o de, K. T. 1. “But," the quick and dead" (2 Tim. iv. l), or rather, “ moreover.” “ But” pre- says (ver. 8), “ Henceforth there is pares the reader for a compassionate laid up for me a crown of righteous. feeling in the breast of the Saviour; ness, which the Lord, the Righteous wbich, though he felt, he did not Judge, shall give to me; and not to manifest ; but, as if he wished to me only, but unto all them also that increase her difficulties, and her faith love his appearing.” St. Peter even also, he seemed to deny her claim confines the blessing of eternal life and their request (supposing that to Christ. (John vi. 68.) The best “ send her away

was equivalent to exposition of the verse is to be “heal her and dismiss her, for she found in John xvii. 2: “ That he is clamorous ;” and not, as some (the Son) should give eternal life to think, “refuse her, for she troubles as many as Thou hast given Him." us "); and therefore the writer adds, This last cited passage shews, as “ Moreover," (that is, seconding well as the original Greek of this their language,) " he answered, and verse, that the power of Christ to said," &c.

give, is commensurate with that of Matt. xvi. 18:“Upon this rock," the Father to appoint. It is no pointing to Himself; as, in John ii. proof of inferiority or impotence, 19, 21, “Destroy this temple ; and to say of either of the Three equal in three days I will raise it up;” Persons of the Godhead, that He where we are expressly told that cannot do anything without the “He spake of the temple of his act, consent, and unity of each and body.” It is not to be denied that every Person of the adorable Trinity. be might have meant “Upon the truth of this doctrine that is, that I am the Messiah, and the Son of God will I build


PROPRIETY OF THE FIRST LESSONS. Peler was a stone (alas! of stumbling to many): Jesus is a Rock of Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. Salvation to all that build their hopes on Him.

As I have been in the habit of reVer. 19 : “ I will give unto thee garding the first lessons, wbich Liturthe keys," &c. That this power gicus, in your No. for April, appears was not confined to St. Peter, may to object to, in a very different light be seen from ch. xviii, 18. But may from himself, I beg leave to state it not also allude to the first preach- my reason for so doing, as I cannot ing of the Gospel by Peter, after but think it an important one. our Saviour's ascension ? At the Liturgicus says, “ Why should not day of Pentecost, St. Peter opened. the first lessons for Sundays, out of as it were, the door of faith to the the Old Testament, be those which Jews, and let in about three thou- are appointed for the day of the sand souls.

month, on which they may occur, Μatt. Xx. 23: θκ εσιν εμον δεναι, instead of having proper lessons for all'occ, K.7.1. Or rather, “ It is not the several Sundays?" He adds, mine to give to any other than to “ The present selection of these those for whom it is proposed," &c. lessons appears to me often injuOr, "to give except to those," &c. dicious. I need not specify the As the verse now stands, the power instances. I do not mean that the to give is taken from Christ; where- chapters I refer to should not be as the Greek confers it. Jesus read to a mixed congregation ; but claims this power elsewhere; as I cannot see why they should be read John x. 28, "I give unto them (my over and over again, year after year, sheep) eternal life.” See also Rev. to the exclusion of many others, at ii. 7; xvii. 26. St. Paul, after calling least equally edifying. In most the Lord Jesus Christ "the Judge of places Sunday is the only day, &c. and surely if a selection be made, it learned doctor's essay on this point is should be of such chapters as might too superficial. How, indeed, could tend most to edification,” &c. such a subject be handled within

Now, in reference to those lessons the narrow compass of twenty-eight which your correspondent seems to pages of a widely-printed octavo ? allude to, as injudiciously selected, The opinion of Dr. Whately on the I have been particularly struck with Sabbath, is, I fear, an opinion intheir appropriateness, as setting be- creasing in popularity: and so zeal. fore us, what it seems evidently to ous is he on the subject, that he has have been the intention of our re. enlarged his view, and printed it as formers to do, the most striking a cheap pamphlet. What pious end scriptural exhibitions of the fall of can be answered by this, I am unable man, and of the depravation of our to explain : at a time when, certainly, nature. Where the calender tells us a superstitious observance of the that passages cannot all be read, Lord's day is not a prevalent error; what a speaking lecture on the but when, on the contrary, the sanc: depravity of human nature is that tion of the highest ranks is given to which can be read ; and again, the treat it with unmingled contempt; silence itself as to that which cannot; and when the desecration of it, and how fitted are both for exciting especially in our great towns, is feelings of deep humiliation ! Surely becoming almost universal. What. those who hear the Scriptures pub- ever it may be in others, in ministers licly read but one day in seven, will of the Church of England this is not hear these chapters too often, in unseemly. They stand at the altar having them, for the above important of the congregation in the solemn uses, brought to their notice once a emblems of priestly duty. They year. Subjects more agreeable than promulge the Fourth Commandment several of them contain, might be as a portion of the unalterable ever. fixed upon : but these are written, lasting code of God: whilst the and these are selected, that we may people, as required by the church, “take root downward :" or, to al. offer the solemn supplication, “Lord, lude to “edifying,” may lay the have mercy upon us; and incline foundation well, in deep scriptural our hearts to keep this law;" and, conviction of what Mr. Cecil calls « write ALL THESE THY LAws in “the bankruptcy of human nature.” our hearts, we beseech thee.” The Never may the time come when this minister then, perhaps, ascends the unpleasant, but “safe,” knowledge pulpit (for I have known such things), shall be less frequently holden up and, instead of enforcing the law by to our “mixed congregations,” by gospel principles, proceeds to tell replacing these well selected exbi- them that that law, which he has bitions with any that may happen so gravely enounced, and for obeto occur in the rotation of the ca- dience to which they have supplilendar.

cated in such awful terms, has been R. F. W. abolished, with the commencement

of the system of which he is the minister. How the mind can be

satisfied in this solemn and unholy FOURTH COMMANDMENT or mockery, and in this contempt of

church ordinances, I know not ;

neither how the church could have Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. announced her opinion on the sub

ject in a more decisive way, than Your Number for February con- by interweaving the Commandments tained a sensible communication into the most serious part of her seron Dr. Whately's opinion respecting vice. This would be quite enough, the abolition of the Mosaic law. The even were not her views so copiously



expressed in the “ First Part of the only is able sufficiently to decide Homily of the Place and Time of all controversies here handled, but Prayer."

also to whom, by a certain peculiar The British Critic, for January right, it belongeth to censure whatlast, contains, in a review of the ever is here uttered.” Bishop of Lincoln's account of Jus. I merely quote these remarks that tin Martyr, some remarks on this the reader may know something of subject ; in which the writer seems this man," as the reviewer stiles a to imply that the strict observance writer of whom, it seems, he knew of the Sabbath originated with Dr. no more than what he had seen in Bound, who published a treatise a casual remark of Jeremy Collier. entitled “ Sabbatum Veteris et I am not defending the length to Novi Testamenti ;” and one would which Dr. Bound, and especially suppose, from the reviewer's way of the puritan writers after him, carried speaking, that he was a mere "pu. his opinions ; for I conceive they ritan divine," and not connected are indefensible. But the dispute is with the established church. But not (as the reviewer has confused it) the fact is, that he was a staunch whether the puritan strictness was churchman, and rector of Norton, right, but whether the Fourth Comin Suffolk. His book is inscribed to mandment is of moral obligation. his diocesan, Bishop Jegon, whose The opinion of the Church of Eng. orthodoxy has, I believe, never been land is decisive, both in her Liturgy questioned : and that he was not and Homilies : it is only a party pen, much of a Puritan (if, by that epithel, therefore, which would impute this a contempt for episcopal or eccle- to Dr. Bound, whose book was pubsiastical authority be understood) lished in the year 1606; or which is obvious from the dedication, in attempts to get rid of the question, which, speaking of certain disputed by amalgamating it with the fanatical points respecting the Sabbath, he excesses of some of the Puritans. says, “All which I most willingly sub. I am not aware that the moral obliject unto the judicious and learned gation of the Fourth Commandment censures of the most reverend fathers ever questioned in the Proand grave divines of the church, in testant Church of England, until the these united kingdoms under the influence of Archbishop Laud comname of Great Britain ; and more menced that charge in her discipline particularly the former book, unto and tenets which soon terminated in your lordship’s pen, either to allow, her destruction. Since the Restora. or cancel, by the Scriptures; who, tion, the former opinion has been unifor your great place and learning, versal among her divines; and, I must have, more than once heretofore, confess, that, as nothing tended more been moderator and determiner of to her downfal than the “ Book of the divinity disputations, and that Sports," and the loose views of the in the greatest assemblies of the Sabbath, in the 17th century; so most famous and flourishing Univer. nothing is more likely to lead to sity of Cambridge ; and whom now the same deplorable event, than the Lord hath made overseer and the promulgation of the same views, judge of all the learning and man- which, I regret to find, are becoming ners of the ministers in Suffolk and too prevalent. Norfolk ; and therefore, who not

G. D.


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