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Upwards of four hundred acres of infancy those impressions have have since been added to the pro- been often received or strengthened, perty ; but the buildings upon it which, in their developments, have have increased in a far more than rendered remarkable characters su. proportionate degree. There are perior to their contemporaries. Fel. now, to give an idea of these en lenberg's tender and feeling mother, largements in a few words, above who possibly might have been entwo hundred apartments, and nearly couraged in her practice by having eight hundred windows in the va. discovered in him peculiar indicarious structures of Hofwyl ; and the tions of benevolence of disposition, history connected with them will accustomed him, when a child, to afford a striking instance of what pray, that he might always be the may be achieved by a considerate friend of the ignorant and the perseverance.

wretched. In August, 1828, very unexpect- His father, whose loss the family edly to myself, I became, through had to deplore in 1801, was a the kindness of M. Fellenberg, an senator of the republic of Berne, inmate of one of these buildings, and was a man devoted to the inwhich had been recently erected terests of his country, and of hu. for the accommodation of some of manity. After those vicissitudes the professors, and of the relatives in the affairs of Switzerland which of the pupils who might occasion. followed the French Revolution, ally visit the institution. M. Fel. he retired from public life, and lenberg, also, without loss of time, passed his last days at Hofwyl. introduced me to an American gen. The first years of his son's manhood tleman, who had made a long stay witnessed the political storms of at his little colony; and as this the tempestuous era that closed the gentleman's pursuits and sentiments last century. In France there was corresponded in the main with my an utter dislocation of the ties which own, he could very cordially, as he had preserved society in order ; surdid most readily, assist me in my rounding nations were heaving with researches, by pointing out what convulsive throes ; and novel opi. was worthy of primary attention. nions, some of which were pregnant

Undertakings similar to those of with mischief, and some with good, M. Fellenberg, in which an enter- were about to superinduce changes prising adventurer or a sanguine in the civilized states of continental theorist may embark, men will be Europe. Though then a young apt to regard with an eye of sus. man, M. Fellenberg bore a promipicion, till they can discern that nent part in the ineffectual measures their projectors have earned some that were taken to secure the inde. title to confidence. Before, there. pendence of his native soil. Just fore, endeavouring to describe the before its freedom expired, and as excellencies of M. Fellenberg's its spoliation commenced, he was mode of education, it may be well at Lucerne, striving to awaken to a to glance, both at the causes of his sense of the common ruin, the can. entering upon his present line of tons which, through the intrigues labours, and at the difficulties with of France, seemed on the eve of a which he has had to contend. Of defection, at a moment when her the full extent of the latter, he alone menaces loudly called for cordiality may be aware ; but connected with and concert, among the various the former, there is one circum- members of a federative body. An stance in the history of his early address which he delivered to the days, which confirms the observation sovereign council of Lucerne, whilst that during the maternal education employed in this struggle of patriotCHRIST. OBSERV. No. 339.


ism, produced the sensation he de- and the French commissary Mengo, sired to create. It was decreed who had an intimation of his zeal, that the military force of the canton put price upon his head. He was should march for the protection of speedily delivered up, put in irons, the frontier ; that a levy en masse and it was with the greatest diffishould forthwith take place; and culty that his friends were able to further, that these decisions should extricate him from the perils that be communicated to the other can. threatened his existence, and to tons, with an earnest solicitation obtain for him an escape into Gerthat similar plans should be acted many. upon throughout Switzerland. Hav- The events of these unhappy days ing thus satisfactorily fulfilled his are replete with instruction. They object, on the receipt of intelli- may at least teach the Swiss that gence which immediately came to they have to fear the arts of finesse, hand, of the advance of the French and the want of united and well against Berne, he prepared to hasten combined efforts, more than milithither, to perform his duties as an tary prowess. Next to an insular officer in its army.

In passing on situation, a citadel of rocks is the his road, through the district greatest security *. Mountaineers of Entlibach, in the canton of Lu- are robust, agile, and adventurous ; cerne, he stopped to accelerate the and had the devotion of those of organization of the levy en masse, the small district of Nidwalden, and to point to its chiefs the dan- where, on the theatre of a battle, gers that menaced their liberties. fought the 9th of September, 1798 +, This levy, quickly collected in a the corpses of one hundred and two country where every male had been women and twenty-five children used to arms, was soon on its march were left, been general ; and had a with him towards Berne; and it had firmly cemented bond of union subalready arrived on the territories of sisted amongst the inhabitants of that canton, when he and his as- the cities and the peasants of the sociates were informed that its ca- Alps; if Switzerland could not pital had been surprised and taken eventually have been wholly free, (5th March, 1798) by the generals the calamities and horrors attendBrune and Schauenburg. A num. ing a pillage of money and effects, ber of fugitives who met his de- amounting in worth to little less tachment at this crisis, spread than hundred millions of amongst the soldiers the report that the Bernese had been betrayed by * God overruling and directing all their leaders, who, fearing to lose things, makes the tyrant or the conqueror their possessions, sought to insure

an executioner of a just vengeance, and

a minister of righteous purposes. Often their safety, by succumbing to the has history verified the lines of Cowper : French. That this report was not “ They trust in navies, and their navies without some foundation is not im- failprobable, as in the councils of Berne, God's word can cast away ten thousand

sail! faction greatly prevailed; but be They trust in armies, and their courage that as it may, he had nearly fallen a victim in consequence of the ru- In wisdom, wealth, in fortune, and in mour; for, as he urged an advance, But all they trust in withers, as it must, and checked the fight of the fugi. When He commands, in whom they place tives, they, in return, pretended be

no trust.” was of the number of the traitors + “ Nous avons perdu beaucoup de who, to secure their own interests, monde," wrote Schauenburg, who comconducted the people to butchery. manded the French army," par la résist

ance incroyable de ces gens-là ; c'est le The levy was seduced by these jour le plus chaud que j'ai jamais vu.". assertions, its march was impeded, M. Simond's Travels.


'dies ;

francs*, might not have been under- Latin essay by undergraduates for gone. Nor would the feelings and the present year, appears to me good sense of the people have been objectionable: “Quæ sit forma llogalled by the publication of French Altelas ad Greciæ renascentis sta. official rodomontades, concocted tum optime accommodata.” This in the chambers of tyranny and question, which is occupying the ambition, pompously announcing to serious attention of the most prothe vanquished, that their subjuga- found statesmen of Europe ; which tion was the generous work of their is being discussed in parliament, friends and liberators.

and in our political journals, with M. Fellenberg, after remaining an anxiety equal to its high impor. awhile an exile in Germany, was

tance; which involves many deep able to return to Berne with safety, questions of diplomatic policy; and and was afterwards deputed, with the very discussion of which presome other persons, to proceed to supposes an intimate knowledge of Paris, in order to protest against the the relations of Greece and Turkey, violences committed by the French of Russia and Austria, and in short agents. Success so far attended of the whole history and prospects this mission, that the recal of Ra of modern Europe, is to be set at pinat and his harpies was obtained. rest in a Latin theme by a Cam. That notorious robber had shame. bridge undergraduate. It is surely lessly declared, that he styled him. injudicious to propose such a quesself emphatically what his name tion as an academical thesis; though imported, and would be known by it would be an admirable topic for his rapine as long as he lived to the Union Club. If the Cambridge own it. It now only remained for undergraduate has been duly atM. Fellenberg to return home; tending to his mathematical studies, and to put into execution the plan and not wholly neglecting classics which be had conceived at Paris, of and theology, it is impossible he employing his future days in a use- can be acquainted with the mass of ful sequestration from the political facts which relate to the question world, except so far as he might be on which he is to decide. He may called upon, as a member of the indeed retail what he has been forsovereign council of Berne, to assist tunate enough to read of the comin its deliberations.

parative merits and demerits of va(To be continued.)

rious forms of government; and give out the regular scholastic aphorisms concerning monarchies, oli

garchies, and republics : and all this CAMBRIDGE PRIZE QUESTIONS.

I admit is right enough in its way;

but it will not decide what is the Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. best form for modern " regenerated

Greece." His classics will be lost In your Number for May 1828 upon him ; for the Morea is not(p. 318), I took the liberty of ani- except in the map-the Peloponmadverting upon one of the Cam. nesus ; the seven years' war is not bridge prize-questions for that year, the twenty-seven years' war ; Navawhich was so worded as to throw rino is not Salamis or Ægospotamos; a doubt upon the authorship of the Constantinople is not Athens ; nor Epistle to the Hebrews. I am un- is either Lycurgus or Solon likely willing again to find fault, but one to be listened to by the framers of of the subjects of the prizes for the the intended Greek constitution. • One writer, M. Mallet-du-Pan reckons

The question is wholly political, and the total of the spoils of Switzerland to be the youthful aspirant has to decide one hundred and twenty millions of francs. between Russia and Turkey; France

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and Austria ; the Duke of Welling. ton and Lord Holland; Prince

THE WORLD'S AGE. Leopold and the Count d'Istria ; and what young man in statú pupil. Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. lari has the necessary information to enable him to do this, and to

Cowper says,

« Some drill and bore enlighten the statesmen of Europe The solid earth, and from the strata there by his labours ? It is a topic of Extract a register, by which we learn pending interest, and,to be discussed That He who made it, and revealed its date to any purpose, it cannot be discussed Tu Moses, was mistaken in its age.” abstractedly; and what is worse, This is admirable wit and satire; neither can the merits of the essay but wit and satire are not argument ; be decided abstractedly, as the most and were they all that the Christian candid judge must inevitably be could offer to an infidel geologist, influenced by his own political opi- they would not greatly bestead his nions in estimating the arguments cause. Happily more solid argument of the candidate. When I was an is within reach. undergraduate, for I am one of the Cowper evidently alludes to the old school, such questions were care- story told in Brydone's tour in fully avoided by our judicious seniors; Sicily of the Abbé Recupero's otherwise we might have had the draw-well. Brydone says that the merits of the French Revolution and Abbé discovered in a well several the claims of Fox and Pitt introduced strata of lavas, with rich vegetable among us, and have turned our mould to a considerable thickness peaceful groves of science into de. between them, which, allowing two bating clubs and bear gardens. thousand years for each layer of

I may be wrong in the view mould to accumulate, makes the which I have taken ; and if so, I world much older thau Moses de. shall be glad to be corrected: my scribes it. Another pit at Jaci was only object is to deprecate the en- still more ominous; so that Brydone trance into our universities of any says, in a flippant sceptical manner, thing that is not academical; above that the Abbé “ could not in conall, of political questions ; questions science make his mountain so young for the hissings or shoutings of rival as the Prophet Moses makes the partizans, questions most interesting world.” He adds, with disgraceful and important, but not to be decided scurrility,“ the bishop, who is streby juvenile cleverness, or even by nuously orthodox, for it is an excelthe study of books, but requiring lont see, has warned the Abbé to be much knowledge of the living world on his guard."

It would seem pro• and the actual bearings of political bable that the fact was furnished by

relationship. Many of the Cam- the worthy Abbé, who never dreambridge prize-questions are very ap- ed of the sceptical inference which propriate and interesting, and the Brydone foisted upon it. The stateessays highly valuable.

I was gra. ment, however, soon obtained curtified to see side by side with the rency; and the only answer made thesis I have animadverted upon, to it was either in substance that another (the Hulsean) on a subject of Cowper, or an attempt to shew of great importance at the present that lava becomes decomposed, and moment, when Neology is making forms “vegetable mould " in a much insidious strides among us : “ The shorter time than the Abbé's calfutility of attempts to represent the culations on known volcanic erupmiracles recorded in Scripture as tions seemed to indicate. Thus effects produced in the ordinary stood the facts and reasonings of course of nature.”

the case till within the last few X. X. X. years ; certainly not in a way satis

factory to the mind of a Christian of the sacred text, as is necessary philosopher.

to shew the harmony between the But happily the case has been word of God and his works. But recently cleared up, as may in time in matters of more familiar occurall alleged physical facts which rence, the necessity for the rule contradict Divine revelation. Dr. above laid down is apparent, as the Daubeny of Oxford, having visited point is more easily ascertainable. the spot in his elaborate researches For example, I some time since into volcanic phenomena, found that heard a very excellent discourse the aforesaid alleged “ beds of ve- preached in a large Episcopal getable mould,the product of long chapel, from that beautiful and inand slow decomposition, were in structive passage,-"Go to the ant, truth neither more nor less than beds thou sluggard, consider her ways of ferruginous tuff, formed probably and be wise ; which having no at the very same time as the lava guide, overseer, or ruler, provideth itself. There is not the slightest her meat in the summer, and gaevidence that decomposition had thereth her food in the harvest.” taken place in any one layer be. The preacher, being a good divine tween ihe dates of the successive but an indifferent naturalist, gave eruptions; for which, therefore, the us several pretty fables about ants shortest interval would suffice. It depositing heaps of corn for their was a remarkable circumstance, as winter's sustenance; turning his Dr. Daubeny observes in his lec-illustrations indeed to the best postures, that the alleged fact should sible moral, of working while it is have been known and commented called to-day, seeking the Lord upon for thirty years, without any while he may be found, and calling person thinking it worth while to

upon him while he is near. But inquire whether it was well founded. every naturalist knows, that the So easily are sceptical objections idea of ants heaping up a winter thrown out; so readily are they grainery, is merely a popular opi. entertained; and so little care is nion, not born out by facts. It taken to confute them.

might be currently believed when OXONIENSES. Solomon wrote ; as it has continued

to be believed much later ; but its truth or falsehood was not neces

sary to the argument of the inspired SCRIPTURE NOT INTENDED TO writer. The illustration was apt,

easily understood, and generally

received, and that was sufficient ; Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. for Solomon was not lecturing upon

science, but instructing men in The remarks which have appeared lessons of spiritual and heavenly in your volumes on both sides re- wisdom. Besides, it may be doubt. lative to Geology, have at least ful whether Solomon is speaking of corroborated one truth; namely, ants, and not of some other insect that a scriptural allusion to a re- that does store up corn for the puted popular faet is not of neces

winter ;

for Solomon was an emi. sity to be viewed as intended to nent naturalist, as well as an inteach the truth of the fact ; the spired writer. In addition to all moral being the same whether the which, this matter of storing up corn popular belief be true or false. In the does not of necessity follow from matter of geology, where the facts the text at all, but is rather the inare not fully understood, an obsti- ference of the commentator ; for nate writer may not unplausibly all that Solomon says is, that the cling to his prejudices, and refuse ant is careful to seek ber food at the to receive such a fair interpretation

proper season. On any of these


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