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second part of the Homily on Sal-
vation, where I read," St. Am-
brose, a Latin author, saith these

words : « This is the ordinance of Tothe Erlitorofthe Christian Observer. God, that they which believe in

Christ should be saved without A LITTLE work has just issued from works, by faith only, freely receiving the press, labelled on the cover, “ The remission of their sins.' Consider New Scheme of Evangelical Reli. diligently these words, without gion," and purporting in its title works, by faith only, freely we repage to be “ a serious Inquiry, ad- ceive remission of our sins. What dressed to W. Wilberforce Esq., can be spoken more plainly, than whether the doctrinal, practical, to say that freely without works, by experimental System of the Rev. faith only, we obtain remission of Legh Richmond is the true, scrip. our sins? These, and other like tural, evangelical Religion, as it pro- sentences, that we be justified by fesses to be, while all others are faith only, freely, and without works, mere assumptions of the title.” we do read ofttimes in the best and Mr. Richmond is termed (p. 46) most ancient writers.” How dread“the author of this system,” which is fully dangerous their works must given as follows, in his own words: be! But the Homily soon after “ Salvation is wholly of faith, from adds; and Archbishop Cranmer, I first to last." “ The soul that by believe, was the writer of it: “ This faith, through grace, is saved with faith the Holy Scripture teacheth out works, obtains an inward prin- us ; this is the strong rock and ciple of love, which must work, can- foundation of Christian religion ; not but work, and actually does work. this, whosoever denieth, is not to The order is thus : First, God loved be accounted for a Christian man, us ; secondly, thence we obtain not for a setter-forth of Christ's faith to trust him; thirdly, we are glory, but for an. adversary to thus saved ; fourthly, we therefore Christ and his Gospel, and for a love him who first loved us ; fifthly, setter-forth of men's vain-glory." this love produces good thoughts, The next alleged error is found words, and works, as the fruits, not in the statement, that we therefore the root of our salvation.” In this love God because he, having loved statement three serious errors are us, has given us faith to trust him, detected.

by which we are saved. This imNow, sir, I do not desire to fill plies, says the writer, that we must your pages with controversy ; and believe we are saved ; a conclusion, did I deem it expedient to enter on he adds, confirmed by Miss Richa lengthened consideration of the mond's statement, " The last time writer's mistakes and misconcep- my dear father spoke to me on pertions, I should address the public sonal religion, he endeavoured to through a different channel: but per- establish my mind in the doctrine haps it may not be amiss to shew, by of assurance.” Miss Richmond's two or three brief quotations, that sentence, however, is left unfinish: the doctrines of which Mr.Richmond ed; for she proceeds, “ and be enis called the author, even if they larged on its importance, and its be condemned, ought certainly not tendency to promote both comfort to be denominated “ new."

and obedience." She also quotes The first alleged error is in the Archbishop Leighton as “believing assertion that “ the soul is saved, by that his salvation was safe and set. faith, through grace, without works,” tled.” Of the Archbishop, howand the prepositions“ by” and ever, not a hint is dropped, or “ without," are conceived to be par- simple persons might be inclined ticularly dangerous. I turn to the to wonder how he could possibly

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have known of Legh Richmond's the Apology, p. 66, fol, edit.) says, “ new system.” I turn to the “ Two other great quarrels Master Homily on Faith, like the former Harding moveth: the one, of only the work of Archbishop Cranmer, faith; the other, as he calleth it, of where I read that faith " is not only the presumptuous certainty of salthe common belief of the Articles of vation....Concerning the assurance our faith, but it is also a true trust or certainty of salvation, the Scrip, and confidence of the mercy of God, tures are full.... St. Cyprian, saith, through our Lord Jesus Christ.” And dost thou stagger, and stand

In the same Archbishop's Ca- in doubt of thy salvation ? That techism of 1548, I read as follows: were as much as not to know God ; “ By faith we be justified before that were as much as, with the sin God (for faith maketh us partakers of unbelief, to offend Christ, the of the justice of Christ, and plant- Master of believers, that were as eth us in Christ); and he that by much as being in the church, in the true faith doth receive the promise house of faith, to have no faith.' It of grace, to him God giveth the is most true that St. Paul saith Holy Ghost, by whom charity is (Phil. ii.), We must work our own spread abroad in our hearts, which salvation with fear and trembling ;' performeth all the Commandments. but this fear riseth in consideration Therefore, he that believeth in of our own weakness and unworChrist, and truly believeth the thiness ; not of any distrust or doubt Gospel, he is just and holy before in God's mercy ; but rather the less God, by the justice of Christ, which cause we find to trust in ourselves, is imputed and given unto him as the more cause we have to trust in Paul saith: We think that man is God. Thus Mr. Harding, to be asjustified by faith without works. He sured of our salvation, St. Augustine is also just before the world, because saith,' It is no arrogant stoutness ; of the love and charity which the it is our faith. It is no pride ; it is Holy Ghost maketh in his heart. devotion. It is no presumption; it Secondly, faith worketh peace and is God's promise.' quietness in our hearts and con- The third error of Mr. Rich. sciences. For by faith we be cer- mond's invention, is, that “the tain that our sins he forgiven. soul....obtains an inward principle Therefore, saith St. Paul to the of love, which must work, cannot Romans, being justified, we have but work, and actually does work." peace and quietness with God, by The Homily on Faith says, “ Faith our Lord Jesus Christ. Thirdly, doth not lie dead in the heart, this peace bringeth unto us a great but is lively and fruitful in bringand singular joy in our hearts and ing forth good works.... As the consciences, and maketh us, for this light cannot be hid, but will shew exceeding benefit of God's mercy forth itself at one place or other ; and grace towards us, fervently to so a true faith cannot be kept secret; love him, gladly to laud and praise but when occasion is offered, it will him, to honour his name, and to break out and shew itself by good profess the same before all the works. And as the living body of world, evermore to give unto him a man ever exerciseth such things most hearty thanks, and to be swift as belong to a natural and living and ready to do all things that may body, for nourishment and preserplease God, and to eschew those . vation of the same, as it hath need, things that may displease him.? opportunity, and occasion; even to Again, in the same Catechism, the soul that hath a lively faith in “ The Holy Ghost doth assure and it, will be doing alway some good warrant us that our sins be for work, which shall declare that it is given, and that our pardon is signed living, and will not be unoccupied." with God's seal." -One quotation A multitude of similar passages, more. Bishop Jewell (Defence of Mr. Editor, might be readily ad

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duced, I have hastily transcribed them. How can he be said to have, only a few of those that first occur- by this conduct, compelled the Genred to my recollection. Was, then, tile converts to Judaize ? This Mr. Richmond, the inventor of the question is answered by the comdoctrines he maintained ? — doc- mentators generally (such as Grotrines, which it seems the Reform- tius, Erasmus, Calvin, &c.), by ers, in opposition to the Church of saying that the word “ compel " is Rome, maintained were the doc- used here rather metaphorically trines of the fathers and of the than strictly; and means that as Apostles. If Mr. Richmond in- far as his example and authority vented these, he has been as hardly went, he was the cause of their treated as he, of unlucky memory, supposing that the ceremonial law who, whenever he said a good thing, of Moses was still in force, and was sure to find that those atrocious consequently of their seeking to be ancients had been stealing his conformed to it. But surely when thoughits.

ALPHA. reproving an erring brother, the

Apostle would take especial care

not to use exaggerated language, CRITICAL REMARK ON or appear to magnify the offence. GAL. ii. 14.

And in truth, there is no reason for

lowering the strict import of the Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. word "compel.” For by separating

himself from the Gentiles, and inSt. Paul, when giving to the Ga- ducing other Jews to follow his exlatian Church an account of the ample (v. 13), St. Peter cut them reproof, which on one occasion he off from Christian communion with administered to St. Peter, makes the church. If the Gentiles were use of an expression, the full force not allowed to “ eat with " the of which appears to me to have Jews, how could they partake of escaped the notice of commen- the Lord's Supper? So that if tators. When," he says (Gal. St. Peter, and the others, had perii. 14), “I saw that they walked sisted in this line of conduct, they not uprightly, according to the would have positively and really truth of the Gospel, I said unto compelled every Gentile convert to Peter, before them all, If thou, Judaize. being a Jew, livest after the manner I trust that this criticism, though of Gentiles, and not as do the Jews, a verbal one, is not unimportant; as why compellest thou the Gentiles it seems to defend St. Paul from the to live as the Jews ?” The offence charge of exaggerating St. Peter's of St. Peter, as stated in preced- offence, and to throw additional light ing verse, consisted in withdrawing on the necessity which existed for his and separating himself from the powerful and earnest remonstrance Gentiles, and refusing to eat with with his erring brother. Y. S.


M. FELLENBERG, HIS SCHOOLS have entered into the details of AND PLANS.

philanthropy. Education, which

embraces some of the first consi. Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. derations that should interest hu

manity, has been his chief study M. Fellenberg's name has long for many years. I have endeavoured been known amongst those who to place his experiments in a clear light, because it appears to me, that was the pride of the Jews of old. he has attended to important parti. They were unwilling, as we by naculars that we, in England, have too ture are, to surrender themselves to generally in our practice overlooked. the obedience of faith. They were My aim has been to pourtray the determined not to acknowledge excellencies of his system ; particu- themselves, what all still are, helplarly in its bearings on the moral of less in themselves, and guilty as education, the development of the sinners: “For they stumbled at character, and the well-being of that stumbling-stone; as it is writ. society. So much has been said in ten, Behold, I lay in Sion a stumbhis favour, that had I been disposed ling-stone and rock of offence : and to indulge in personal panegyric, whosoever believeth on him shall my encomia would have been not be ashamed." needless. Consistency, however, If then, on most essential points, calls upon me to state what, with many sincere members of the Church all my respect and affection for of England, and of the Christian M. Fellenberg, I must deeply, la- church generally, must, like myment, that, according to my views, self, differ from our amiable and he has not given to the inculcation venerable philanthropist, it must of Christian doctrine the vantage be expected that we could not acground it should occupy. We quiesce in all his arrangements, must receive the doctrine of Christ however highly we might approve as God, as well as order our con- of some of his plans. We could duct according to the example not but wish that the Sunday were of Christ as man. It is true, that spent in another manner from what “if any man will do the will of God, it is at Hofwyl. We should add he shall know of the doctrine :” but many books to the libraries, and the will of God is, that we renounce abstract some. We should have our own wills. In this respect, our grace said aloud at meals, although, adorable Redeemer has set us an as is objected, “ a solemn attention example ; for, as our Mediator, he might not always be paid to a declares, that He did not come to commonly repeated form.” Our do His own will, but the will of decided attachment to the doctrines Him that sent him. “ The wisdom of the Reformation would also preof God," “in whose presence no vent us from supporting a seminary flesh shall glory," is in a mystery: that would be unobjectionable in its and the natural repugnance of the regulations to Roman Catholics. A unrenewed heart cordially to accept variety of other particulars might of Jesus Christ as a Saviour from be adduced in which we could not the guilt and power of sin prompts conscientiously follow M. Fellenberg: man, when he may not be disposed but, in order to avail ourselves of altogether to reject the authority of the fruits of his experience, it is by inspiration, to set up human works no means necessary that we should as a meritorious title to an interest think with him on all subjects: and in the mercies of the Gospel. Thus, his sentiments will be fairly exputting what he conceives to be a plained by himself, in a long extract most reasonable construction upon from one of his letters, which I have the text of Scripture, he creates inserted. It was formerly reported confusion in the whole ; for even that he was a Deist; and, latterly, morality cannot be perfect in its that he is a Socinian. These imprinciple without a full submission' putations he resists; and he put of the affections and of the under- into my hands a work, in the prestanding to the will of God. How- face of which it is stated, that he soever it may be disguised, our pride “is a zealous Christian, and conand corruption are opposed to the forms to the ceremonies of the message of salvation, as much as Church of Geneva, in which he was

.educated." The Judge of all knows referring principally to Hofwyl and precisely in what degree any man its founder ; the second, embracing may have been blinded by the fatal a sketch of his principles of educaerrors that have crept into that tion, illustrated by his practice; and church. But we are forbidden by the third, describing Maykirk and the apostolic rule of charity to mag- the colony of the Linth. Both nify the declensions of those who Hofwyl and Maykirk are situated in seem to have imbibed heterodox the canton of Berne in Switzerland, tenets, by styling them what they and belong to M. Fellenberg. The will not allow themselves to be. By colony of the Linth, where his printhus: representing them, whether ciples of education have been acted truly or falsely, we widen breaches upon, is in the canton of Glarus. and prevent appeals to truth from

2. being heard. Let us not "prophecy

Hofwyl, &c. deceit," and

say, “ Peace, where The domain of Hofwyl has been there is no peace;" for smooth compared, not unaptly, to a landnames will profit nothing in the day scape in a frame-work of mountains. of wrath ; but let us also be cau. To its south-east, above a range tious how we apply, to even erring presenting bold projections, some individuals, the stigma of designa- of the loftiest of the Alps are to be tions with which only the most mis- descried. Many leagues apart from, taken and corrupt can be pleased. and opposite to, these a chain of the

I have not, in the sequel, noticed Juras upholds another grand boun. any of the objections that might be dary to the view. Between such raised against M. Fellenberg's plans; towering barriers, and nearly encirneither have his agricultural expe- cled by eminences of comparatively riments been referred to, except as humble altitude, wearing for' the they have a connexion with his most part on their brows a belt of other efforts. Nor have I hazarded wood, stands, on a gently undulatan opinion on the practicability or ing tract, the institution of Hofwyl. expediency of forming similar insti. Two small lakes, meadows, and a tutions to his in other places; but few rural habitations, just shewing it must be borne in mind, that he themselves amongst their orchards, greatly attributes his own success, adorn and diversify its immediate particularly amongst his indigent vicinage. Adjoining Hofwyl, is scholars, to their being withdrawn the village of Bucbsée, which offers from the contamination of vicious the accommodation of one 'small example, and to the comparative inn. Berne, the capital of the state of seclusion in which they canton, is six miles distant. live.

The climate of Hofwyl is bracing It is hoped, that these papers and healthy; and its temperature may be the niedium of conveying is not subject to such extremes as some useful hints to those who are are experienced in some parts of professionally engaged in tuition, Switzerland. The soil, being of difand to those who are desirous of ferent qualities, is favourable to the promoting, from the highest of mo. illustration of agricultural science. tives, the welfare of the rising gene. Near the lakes, the land has reration of the British empire, includ- quired much drainage. ing, especially, that of Ireland. In 1799, M. Emanuel de FellenThe statistics of Hofwyl have, from berg secured the estate for the protime to time, been detailed in various secution of his plans of enlightened publications in French and German: benevolence. It consisted, then, of those which I have seen in English rather less than two bundred acres, are few, and are out of print. on which he found a convenient

I shall offer my remarks to your well-built chateau, or country-house, readers under three heads; -- the first and the usual erections for a farm.

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