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second visitation of Galatia, under a change of circumstances more auspicious to such a purpose, and in part produced by the epistle itself, and when a contribution for the relief of the poor brethren at Jerusalem on a large scale was actually going forward.
APPENDIX C. p. 50 .
The vision, and the thorn in the flesh as connected
with that subject.
The thorn in the flesh, that vexata quæstio, belongs in the first instance to the epistle, 2 Cor., as being there, xii. 7., most distinctly mentioned; while it is supposed, with good reason apparently, to have been the same with that infirmity of the flesh, and temptation, i. e. severe trial, in the flesh, at an earlier day recalled to the mind of the Galatians, Gal. iv. 13, 14., as having fallen under their notice.
Now the beatific vision enjoyed by St. Paul, to which he refers, 2 Cor. xii. 1...4., must have long preceded his first visit to Galatia : and therefore the thorn, if as a humiliation and chastisement, it came soon after that remarkable event, must also have preceded the visit into that region, and must have continued at least till that period, when they witnessed him actually suffering under it.
But in respect of the Corinthians, the case seems to be very different. Had they witnessed such a visible infirmity when he appeared in Corinth for the first time, A. xviii. 1., there could hardly be any need to tell them of it so very particularly now. Probably, therefore, even before he passed over into Europe, A. xvi. 11., his prayers for deliverance from the affliction had at length been heard. Not a vestige of its existence can be traced lower down than in that notice taken of it to the Galatians.
For be it here carefully remarked, that his being in presence base, or humble in look, among them, and the weakness of his bodily presence, 2 Cor. x. 1. and 10., appear from the context to have formed the general character of the apostle, as opposed to the attributes of bold, weighty, powerful; whereas the thorn in the flesh, whatever else that buffeting of Satan was, must have been something in its very nature peculiar and for a season, perhaps only an affection under which he was made occasionally to labour.
But for a more decisive argument that St. Paul did not labour under it while at Corinth on his first visit there, the following consideration may be admitted, as coming at once to the point. When having at an early stage met with opposition and blasphemy in that city, A. xviii. 6., (and i Cor. ii. 3.) he stood in great need of supernatural support; do we find him, vv. 9, 10., relieved by exemption from any specific weakness ? A general infusion of divine fortitude into his whole frame is there vouchsafed to the renovated apostle.
APPENDIX D. pp. 62, 63.
On Acts xix. 22. xx. 1, 2, &c.
The developement promised, H. P. 40, 1., of the
transactions, &c. connected with the two Epistles to the Corinthians.
ss. 1, 2. As far as Timothy is concerned ; and in s. 1.
of Apollos. s. 3. Of Titus, more particularly. S. 4. Of that benevolent contribution of the Gentile
Christians. s. 5. On the apostle's retrospect of his labours and
sufferings. s. 6. Original argument against the early date of the
Epistle, 1 Timothy.
This epistle, 1 Cor., was written by St. Paul from Ephesus, H. P. 36.: and the principal circumstances connected with its history and with that of 2 Cor., such as are necessary to make the narrative more clearly understood, may be stated thus, with as much brevity as those circumstances, themselves somewhat complex, will permit.
s. 1. After St. Paul's first visit to Corinth, p. 47., and his residence there for a year and a half, the history brings him, and after no very long interval, the second time to Ephesus, A. xix. 1.: and as he then continued in that city for the space of three years, A. xx. 31. or thereabouts, opportunities of intercourse with the church of Corinth must have frequently occurred. Accordingly we find that some of the Corinthian converts, distressed by matters of scandal which had arisen after St. Paul's sojourn among them, agreed to appeal to the apostle at Ephesus, and for that purpose to consult him by a letter, conveyed apparently, 1 Cor. xvi. 17., through the hands of Stephanas, Fortunatus, and Achaicus.
To this public letter St. Paul writes in 1 Cor. an explicit answer : but having received private intelligence, H. P. 34, 5., of other abuses and disorders, he delivers his judgment, i. 11., v. 1., xi. 18., very fully on those matters also. And the epistle in which all this and much more is accomplished, he seems to have sent to Corinth by the persons commissioned to him in the first instance.
About the same time that the letter from Corinth was received by the apostle, we may suppose that APOLLOS (of whom our earliest account is very
distinct, A. xviii. 24...28.), " displeased with the faction" in Corinth, which had spread under his name,” went over to Ephesus for the satisfaction of conferring in person with St. Paul; to whom he then for the first time became personally known. And the depth of that feeling under which he sought the conference, may estimated by his disinclination, his refusal indeed, to go back to Corinth along with the messengers, though, “ greatly desired,” 1 C. xvi. 12., so to do by the apostle himself.
No schism in the peace and unity of the church of Christ should be laid to his charge.
After this period, no further mention (and never as at Corinth again) occurs of Apollos, till, in the Epistle
to Titus iii. 13., we find his name as a Christian minister under the direction of St. Paul ; with the request to Titus, that he should be forwarded from Crete, on some journey, to Jerusalem not improbably, in company with Zenas the lawyer.
s. 2. Before St. Paul wrote this epistle, 1 Cor., he had dispatched Timothy from Ephesus, A. xix. 22., together with Erastus who belonged to Corinth, on a journey (probably by Troas) into Macedonia, to prepare the way for his visiting the churches of that country.
From Macedonia, Timothy had instructions, 1 C. iv. 17., xvi. 10., to proceed onwards to Corinth ; where, however, it was clearly not expected by St. Paul, that he could arrive till some time after the epistle, 1 Cor., had been received.
Now on the fair probabilities before the mind of St. Paul in the actual situation of things when he wrote that epistle, he had formed a calculation which would allow Timothy, after passing through Macedonia, both to visit the church of Corinth on his way back, and from thence even to be forwarded to Ephesus, in time it might be to reach Paul with tidings from Corinth, before the day of Pentecost, 1 C. xvi. 8., the limit then marked for his stay in that city.
Every thing, however, seems to have turned out in the event far otherwise than the apostle, with apparent reason at the time, had calculated. The riot in the theatre at Ephesus, A. xix. 23., after 1 COR. was written, beyond a doubt occasioned, A. xx. 1., his premature departure for Macedonia. And when on his route thither he had reached Troas, sooner of course than he originally intended, not finding Titus there, 2 C. ii. 12, 13., with tidings from the church of Corinth, “I had no rest in my spirit,” he tells us; and his impatience was