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this principle, the Jews, in the interpretation of the older Scriptures, instead of direct and sensible communication from the one great Deity, had interposed either one or more intermediate beings, as the channels of communication. According to one accredited tradition alluded to by St. Stephen, the law was delivered “ by the disposilion of angels (1);”-according to another, this office was delegated to a single angel, sometimes called the angel of the Law (2), at others the Metatron. But the more ordinary representative, as it were, of God to the sense and mind of man, was the Memra, or the Divine Word; and it is remarkable, that the same appellation is The Word. found in the Indian (3), the Persian (4), the Platonic, and the Alexandrian systems. By the Targumists, the earliest Jewish commentators on the Scriptures, this term had been already applied to the Messiah (5); nor is it necessary to observe the manner in which it has been sanctified by its introduction into the Christian scheme (6). From this remarkable uniformity of conception, and coincidence of language, has sometimes been assumed a common tradition, generally disseminated throughout the race of man. I should be content with receiving it as the general acquiescence of the human mind, in the necessity of some mediation between the pure spiritual nature of the Deily, and the intellectual and moral being of man, of which the sublimest and simplest, and therefore the most natural development, was the revelation of God in Christ in the

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(1) Compare LXX. Transl. of Deut. xxxiii. 2., et par conséquent infini comme lui, créateur et where the angels are interpolated. Huão re maitre de toutes choses. Brahın méditant sur le

Verbe divin y trouva l'eau priinitive. Oupnekκάλλιστα των δογμάτων και τα όσιώτατα

Hat, quoled in De Guignaut, p. 644. των εν τοις νόμοις διαγγέλων παρα του Origen, or rather the author of the PhilosoOsn û Mahborav. Joseph. Ant xv. 5. 3. phoumena inserted in his works, was aware of Compare Chiarini, i. 307, And on the traces of lluis fact. 'Autod (Brachmanes) TOV Jeov pôs the Judæo-Alexandrian philosophy in the LXX. είναι λέγουσιν ουχ όποιον τις ορα, ουδ Dähne, Judisch-Alexandrianische Religions Phi. o lov üroos xen enné til aurois ó losophie, part ii. pp. 49–56. (2) Compare Gal. iii. 19. Deus Mosen legem gucócenos, si ou Tee spúnta tñs gvárew;

θεος λόγος, ούχ ο έναρθρος, αλλά και της docuit: cum autem descenderet, tanto timore perculsus est, ut omnium oblivisceretur. Deus uvosýpice ópêran oópois. de Brachman. autem statim Jesifiam, Angelum legis, vocavit, According to a note, partly by M. le Normant, qui ipsi legem tradidit bene ordinatam et custo- partly by M. Champollion, in Chateaubriand ditam, omnesque angeli amici ejus facti sunt. (Etudes sur l'Histoire), Thoth is, in the hierogly. Jalkat Ruben, quoted by Wetstein and Schoet. phical language of Egypt, the Word. gen, in loco. See also Eisenmenger, 1–56. Two angels seem to be introduced in this latter tradi- Honover is by no ineans consistent; strictly

(4) In the Persian system the use of the term tion, the angelus Metatron, and Jesifya, angelus speaking it occupies only a third place. Orınuzd, Legis.

the good Principle, crealed the external universe Philo, de Præm, rationalises further, and considers the commandments communicated, as it great primal spirit is the Word ; in another, the

by his Word (Honover) : in another sense the were, by the air made articulate, ii. 405.

Principle of Good. (3) It appears in the Indian system : Vach signifying speech. She is the active power of works of Lightfoot, Schoetgen, and other Tal

(5) It is by the latter, as may be seen in the Brahma, proceeding from him : she speaks a

mudic writers, and in Bertholdt (Christologia hymn in the Vedas, in praise of herself us the Judaica), that it is applied to the Messiah, not by supreme and universal soul. (Colebrooke, in Philo, who, as will appear, scarcely, if ever, Asiatic Researches, viii. p. 402.) La première notices a personal Messiah. parole que proféra le Créateur, ce fut Oum : Oum parut avant toutes choses, et il s'appelle le (6) Dr. Burton (in his Bampion Lectures, acpremier né du Créateur. Oum ou Prana, pareil knowledges, of course, the antiquity of the term, au pur éther renfermant en soi toutes les qualités, and suggests the most sensible mode of recontous les élémens, est le nom, le corps de Brahm, citing this fact with its adoption into Christianity.



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inadequate language of our version of the original “the brightness
of (God's) glory, and the express image of his person (1)."

No question has been more strenuously debated than the know-
ledge of a future state, entertained by the earlier Jews. At all events
it is quite clear, that before the lime of Christ, not merely the im-
mortality of the soul, but what is very different, a final resurrec-
tion (2), had become completely interwoven with the popular belief.
Passages in the later prophets, Daniel and Ezekiel, particularly a
very remarkable one in the latter, may be adduced as the first dis-
tinct authorities on which this belief might be grounded. It appears,
however, in its more perfect development, soon after the return
from the captivity. As early as the revolt of the Maccabees, it was
so deeply rooted in the public mind, that we find a solemn ceremony
performed for the dead (3). From henceforth it became the leading
article of the great schism between the traditionists and the anti-
traditionists, the Pharisees and the Sadducees : and in the gospels
we cannot but discover at a glance, its almost universal prevalence.
Even the Roman historian was struck by its influence on the indo-
mitable character of the people (4). In the Zoroastrian religion a re-
surrection holds a place no less prominent, than in the later Jewish
belief (5). On the day of the final triumph of the Great Principle of
Light, the children of light are to be raised from the dead, lo partake
in the physical splendour, and to assume the moral perfection of the
subjects of the triumphant Principle of Good. In the same manner,
the Jews associated together the coming of the Messiah with the
final resurrection. From many passages, quoted by Lightfoot, I
select the following: " The righteous, whom the Lord shall raise
from the dead in the days of the Messiah, when they are restored to
life, shall not again return to their dust, neither in the days of the
Messiah, nor in the following age, but their flesh shall remain upon
them (6)."

Out of all these different sources, from whence they derived a notion of knowledge of a future state, the passages of their prophets in their *Messiah. own sacred writings (among which that in the book of Daniel, from

its coincidence with the Zoroastrian lenet, might easily be misap-
plied), and the oriental element, the popular belief of the Palestinian
Jews had moulded up a splendid though confused vision of the ap-
pearance of the Messiah, the simultaneous regeneration of all things,
The resurrection of the dead, and the reign of the Messiah upon

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(1) 'Απαύγασμα της δόξης και χαρακ- (5) Hyde, de Vet. Pers. Relig 537. and 293. rñp ons ÜTOOTGOEos autoû. Hebrews i. 3. Beausobre, Hist. du Manicheisme, i. 204. Ave

(2) It is singular how often this material point Oιώσεσθαι κατα τους Μάγους τους ανof difference has been lost sight of in the discus- θρώπους και έσεσθαι αθανάτους. Theosions on this subject.

pomp. apud Diog Laert. Kleuker's Zendavesta and (3) 2 Macc. xii. 44.

Anhangpart ii. p. 110. Boundehesch, xix. (4) Aniinasque prælio et suppliciis perempto- xxxi., etc. Compare Gesenius on Isaiah xxvi. 19. ruin æternas putant. Tac. Hist, v. 5.

(6) Lightfoot, v. 255. X. 495. xi. 353.

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earth. All these events were to take place at once, or to follow close upon each other. In many passages, the language of the apostles clearly intimates that they were as little prepared to expect a purely religious renovation, at the coming of the Messiah, as the rest of their countrymen; and throughout the apostolic age, this notion still maintained its ground, and kept up the general apprehension, that the final consummation was immediately at band (1). It is no doubt impossible to assign their particular preponderance to these several elements, which combined to form the popular belief: yet, even if many of their nolions entirely originated in the Zoroastrian system, it would be curious to observe how, by the very calamilies of the Jews, Divine Providence adapted them for the more important part which they were to fill in the history of mankind; and to trace the progressive manner in which the Almighty prepared the development of the more perfect and universal system of Christianity.

For, with whatever oriental colouring Jewish tradition might Messiah, invest the image of the great Deliverer, in Palestine it still remained rigidly national and exclusive. If the Jew concurred with the worshipper of Ormusd in expecting a final restoration of all things through the agency of a Divine Intelligence (2) that Being, according to the promise to their fathers, was io be intimately connected with their race; he was lo descend from the line of David; he was to occupy Sion, the holy city, as the centre of his government; he was to make his appearance in the temple on Mount Moriah; he was to re-assemble all the scattered descendants of the tribes, to discomfit and expel their barbarous and foreign rulers. The great distinction between the two races of mankind, fell in completely with their heredilary prejudices : the children of Abraham were, as their birthright, the children of light; and even the doctrine of the resurrection was singularly harmonised with that exclusive nalionality. At least the first resurrection (3) was to be their separate portion (4); it was to summon them, if not all, at least the




(1) Compare 2 Esdras vi. 24, 25.

Mischna. Tract. Sanh. c. xi. 12.) shall partake (2) The Persians long preserved the notion of in the life to come-except those who deny the a restoration of the law of Zoroaster by a kind resurrection of the dead (the Sadducees ?) and of Messiah. “Suivant les traditions des Perses, that the law came from heaven, and the Epicurapportées dans la Zerdouscht-naineh et dans le R. Akiba added, he who reads foreign Djainaspi.nazem, Pashoutan, l'un des personnages books_Aba Schaul, he who pronounces the indestinés à faire refleurir la religion de Zoroastre, effable name (Jehovah). Three kings and four et l'empire des Perses dans les derniers temps, private individuals have no share in the life to demeure en attendant ce moment dans le Kan. come : -the kings, Jeroboam, Ahab, Manasseh ; guédez, pays qui paraît répondre en partie au the four private men, Balaam, Doeg, AchitoKhorassan. Il en sortira à l'ordre qui lui sera phel,

--? apporté par un ized (i. e. spiritus celestis) (4) It is good (says the martyred youth in the noinmé Sérosch, et reviendra dans l'Iran. Par book of Maccabees) being put lo death by men, l'efficace des paroles sacrées de l'Avesta, il inettra to be raised up again by him; as for thee, thou en fuite les barbares qui désolaient ce pays, y shalt have no resurrection to life. 2 Macc. ix. rétablira la religion dans toute sa pureté, et y 14.; xii. 44.; also 2 Esd. ii. 23. Compare the sera renaitre l'abondance, le bonheur et la paix, speech of Josephus, Hist. of the Jews, vol. ii. Silvestre de Sacy, sur div. Ant. de la Perse. P. 312. Quotations might be multiplied from

The rabbinical writers. (3) 2 Esd. xi. 10–31. All Israelites (says the

P. 95.

JudæoGrecian system.

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more righteous, from Paradise, from the abode of departed spirits ;
and under their triumphant king, they were to enjoy a thousand
years of glory and bliss upon the recreated and renovated earth (1).

We pass from the rich poetic impersonations, the fantastic but
expressive symbolic forms of the East, to the colder and clearer
light of Grecian philosophy, with which the Western Jews, espe-
cially in Alexandria, had endeavoured to associate their own reli-
gious truths. The poetic age of Greece had long passed away before
the two nations came into contact; and the same rationalising ten-
dency of the times led the Greek to reduce his religion, the Jew
the history of his nation, to a lofly moral allegory (2). Enough of
poetry remained in the philosophic system, adopted in the great
Jewish Alexandrian school, that of Plato, to leave ample scope for
the imagination : and indeed there was a kind of softened Oriental-
ism, probably derived by Plato from his master Pythagoras from
the East, which readily assimilated with the mystic interpretations
of the Egypto-Jewish theology. The - Alexandrian notions of the
days of the Messiah are faintly shadowed out in the book “ of the
Wisdom of Solomon (3)," in terms which occasionally remind us
of some which occur in the New Testament. The righteous Jews,
on account of their acknowledged moral and religious superiority,
were to“ judge the nations,” and have “dominion over all people.”
But the more perfect development of these views is to be found in
the works of Philo. This writer, who however inclined to soar into
the cloudy realms of mysticism, often rests in the middle region of
the moral sublime, and abounds in passages which would scarcely
do discredit to his Athenian master, had arrayed a splendid vision
of the perfectibility of human nature, in which his own nation was
to take the most distinguished part. From them knowledge and
virtue were to emanate through the universal race of man. The
whole world, convinced at length of the moral superiority of the
Mosaic institutes, interpreted, it is true, upon the allegorical sys-
tem, and so harmonised with the sublimest Platonism of the Greeks,
was to submit in voluntary homage, and render their allegiance to
the great religious teachers and examples of mankind. The Jews
themselves, thus suddenly regenerated to more than the primitive
purity and loftiness of their Law, ( in which the Divine Reason,


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(1) Tanchuma, fol. 255. Quot sunt dies Mes- annos duraturo, ejusdemque deliciis et voluptatisiæ ? R. Elieser, filius R. Jose, Galilæus, dixit bus, de bellis ejus cum terribili quodam adverMessiae tempora sunt mille anni, secundum dic- sario quem Antichristum dicebant, de victoriis tum Jer. xxiii, 4. Dies enim Dei mille est anno. denique earumque fructibus mirabilia narrabant rum. Bertholdt, p. 38.

somnia, quorum deinde pars ad Christianos transThe holy blessed God will renew the world for ferebatur. Mosheim, ii. 8. a thousand years_quoted by Lightfoot, iii. 37. This was the kingdom of heaven, the kingdom If I presume to treat the inillenium as a fable of God-of Christ, or emphatically " the king.

of Jewish dotage,” I may remind my readers dom,” See Kuinoel, vol. 'i. pi ni. Schoetgen, that this expression is taken from what once Hor. Heb. p. 1147. stood as an article (the forty-first) of our church. (2) Compare Bertholdt, ch. vi. See Collier for the Articles in Edward the Sixth's (3) Wisdom, iii. 8.; V. 16.; viii. 14. reign. Atque de hujus in his terris regno, mille



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the Logos, was as it were embodied,) were to gather together from
all quarters, and under the guidance of a more than human being,
unseen to all eyes but those of the favoured nation (1) (such was Reign of

Messiah, the only vestige of the Messiah ) to re-assemble in their native

according land. There the great era of virtue, and peace, and abundance, productiveness of the soil, prolificness in the people, in short, of Jews. all the blessings promised in the book of Deuteronomy, was to commence and endure for ever. This people were to be invincible, since true valour is inseparable from true virtue. By a singular inference, not out of character wilh allegoric interprelers who, while they refine the plainest facts and precepts to a more subtle and mystic meaning, are apt to take that which is evidently figurative in a literal sense, the very wild beasts in awe and wonder at this pure and passionless race, who shall have ceased to rage against each other with bestial ferocity, were to tame their savage hostility to mankind (2). Thus the prophecy of Isaiah, to which Philo seems to allude, though he does not adduce the words, was to be accomplished to the letter; and that paradisaical state of amity beIween brute and man, so beautifully described by Milton, perhaps from this source, was finally to be renewed. And as the Jewish philosopher, contrary to most of his own countrymen, and to some of the Grecian sects, denied the future dissolution of the world by fire, and asserted its elernity (3), he probably contemplaled the everlasting duration of this peaceful and holy state.

Such, for no doubt the Alexandrian opinions bad penetrated into Belief difPalestine, particularly among the Hellenist Jews—such were the cording to vast, incoherent, and dazzling images with which which the future teemed to the hopes of the Jewish people (4). They admitted believer. either a part or the whole of the common belief, as accorded with their tone of mind and feeling. Each region, each rank, each sect; the Babylonian, the Egyptian, the Palestinian, the Samaritan; the Pharisee, the lawyer, the zealot, arrayed the Messiah in those allributes which suited his own temperament. Of that wbich was more methodically taught in the synagogue or the adjacent school, the populace caught up whatever made the deeper impression. The enthusiasm took an active or contemplative, an ambitious or a religious, an earthly or a heavenly tone, according to the education, habits, or station of the believer; and to different men

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De Execr. ii. 435, 436.

nations, Tobit, xiii. 11. xiv. 6,7: see particu(2) De Præm, ii. p. 422.

larly the secoud apocryphal book of Esdras, (3) De Mundi incorruptibilitate, passim. which, although manifestly Judæo-Christian, is

(4) The following passages from the apocry. of value as illustrating the opinions of the times. phal books may be consulted; I do not think it -" Thou madest the world for our sakes; as for necessary to refer to all the citations which might the other people, which also como of Adam, thou be made from the Prophets :—The « faithful bast said that they are nothing, but be like unto prophet is mentioned," 1 Macc. xiv. 41; the spittle ; and hast likened the abundance of them discomfiture of the enemies of Israel, Judith, untó a drop that falleth from a vessel.* * If the xvi. 17; universal peace, Ecclesiast. I, 23, 24; world now be made for our sakes, why do we the re-asse:nbling of the tribes, Tobit, xiii. 13- not possess an inheritance with the world ? how 18. Baruch, ii. 34, 35; the conversion of many long shall this endure?” 2 Esdras, vi. 56-59.


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