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Mr. Maittaire observes, That the Art of Grammar is the Key to all Learning; “ The Necessity of

which (lays he) was never called in Question but “ by the Ignorant; which none ever neglected, but “ who some time or other paid very dear for’t " by betraying the Want of that sound Bottom ei: " ther in writing or common Discourse. " The Author adds, Thar“ it is now-a-Days the mi" serable Fare of Grammar to be more whipped " than taught,

and appears very much concerned for it. He complains of another Hardship.“ The & Youths (fays he) are forced to learn what they

can't understand, being hurried into Latin, bé. “ fore they are well able to read English: As if this u last was so despicable, that it needed not, or so bar

barous, that it could not be digested into a Gram" matical Method. The Ignorance of English (con

tinues the Author) can never be a good Founda. « tion or Ingredient towards disposing of Youth for & the Learned Languages. The Knowledge of it

must serve as an Introduction to them ; else 'twill * be in vain to expect they'l ever be an Improv:

ment to that. What is not known can't be iin. " proved ; and 'tis by the Help of what we know,

that we learn what we know not.'

Mr, Maittaire declares, that he cannot find any tolerable Reason why the Fair Sex should be excluded from the Benefit of the Ancient Languages. As for that tender Sex, (says he) which to set off

we take so much Pains and use such variety of

Breeding, fome for the Feer, some for the Hands, “ others for the Voice; what shall I call it, Cruelty

or Ignorance, to debar them from the Accom“plishment of Speech and Understanding? As if " that Sex was (as certainly we by Experience find “ it is not) weak and defective in its Head and “ Brains.

This Grammar contains many useful Observations. The Author exemplifies in English the Rules of that Art, and draws a Parallel berween that Language and the Learned ones; that the English may be an



Introduction to them, if the young Beginner is de signed for them, and if he is not, that he may be able to spell and read English distinctly, and speak truly and sensibly upon any Subject whatsoever.

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MAZZINI's Treatise, fbewing how the Health of Princes may be preserved. (See above, ART. XVIII.)


R. Ramazzini complains, that Princes eat lit

tle Breadsometimes contented to wipe their Fingers with the Crum. Good Bread (lays he) is a moft wholsome food, and affords the best Nourishment. It does not so easily purrify as Flesh, Fish, and Fruir, and keeps a long time without losing its Nutritive Virtue; and therefore it ought to be preferred to any other Food, and mixed with all other Aliments, in a certain Proportion. But there is no need of fixing the Quantity of it, as Marfilius Ficinus * did.

The Author adds, That good Bread contains a great many spirituous Particles. It affords by a Chymical Operation Acid and Volatile Spirits, which are an excellent Balsam to revive the Ferinent of the Stomach. No one that enjoys a good Health, grows weary of Bread; and when a fick Person comes to relish Bread, 'tis look'd upon as a sign of his being on the mending hand. 'Tis observable, that some Vol. IV.



Panis efto duplus ad porum, triplus ad carnes, quadruplus ad pisces. Marsil. Ficinus, De Stadioforum. SariSate tuenda. Lib. II.

People have an Antipathy against Wine, or some other Things, such as Cheese, Eggs, &c. whereas there is hardly any Instance of any Person, who had an Aversion for Bread, besides a Maid in the Low Countries mentioned by Bruyerinus. That Maid being Sixteen Years of Age, had never tasted any Bread and whenever the least Crum was put into Whey, of which she was a great Lover, she felt a rising in the Stomach. 'Tis well known, that those who eat little Bread and a great deal of Flesh, have a stinking Breath;, which may easily be accounted for. Flem being naturally subject to Corruption, can afford none but corrupt Juices, unless it be mixed with a great deal of Bread. Lastly, the Author says, That there is no Smell more pleasant and comfortable than that of Bread just come from the Oven.

He looks upon wild Fowl and Venison as the worst Sort of Meat, because it is not easily digested, and lies heavy upon the Stomach. The same may be laid of Beef, Pork, Water-Fowl, and large Sea-fish. They afford thick Juices, and occafion several Obstructions in the Vestels of the Blood and the Viscera. "Tis an usual thing to keep hard Meat some Days, till it grows more tender; but Dr. Ramazzini thinks that fuch Meat is not so wholfome, because it loses 'a great many Spirits; and he believes, as Hippocrates does, that fresh Mear is the best. It were berrer (says he) to beat hard Meat, because when its Fibres are broke, it grows softer, and consequently may be more easily digested.

Dr. Ramazzini adds, That those Fowls which feed in the open Air, and in the Fields, are better than those that are fed at Home. These are fatter, but not so wholsome for want of Exercise. In a Word, that Flesh is the best, which does easily transpire, such as Mutron, as San&torius observes, and in general,' any Flesh that does not lie heavy upon the Stomach, that is easily diffolved, and does not stay long in the Body. Our Author does not approve eating much Fruir, nor the frequent use of cooling Liquors, such as Lemonade, cc. Speaking of the


Use of Snow in Summer-time, he observes, That when there is little or no Snow in the Winter, 'tis frequently á Sign of a very sickly Year. Dr. Ramazzini thinks, that Wine growing in a Plain is more wholsome than that which grows upon a Hill. He recommends small, or strained Wines; and says, the Wines of the Dutchy of Modena are not inferior to those of Tuscany.

VI. In the next Chapter, the Author shews how necessary it is to ufe some Exercise for the Preser vation of Health. He approves several Sorts of Exercise, such as Riding, Hunting, Dancing, &c. but he thinks Walking is the best, and applies to the human Body, what Virgil says of Fame:

Mobilitate viget, viresque acquirit eundo. Walking (says he) is very wholsome before Dinner and Supper : It revives the Heat of the Body, helps the Circulation of the Blood, increases Transpiration, and removes Obstructions. Dr. Ramazzini reckons the lawful Use of Venereal Pleasures among Exercises; but (says he) such an Exercise is very prejudi. cial to Health, unless it be used with Moderation. Whereupon he quotes a Saying of Lycurgus, and calls it Dictum elegantisimum. That Wile Legiflator (says he) being asked, Why he had made a Law importing, That Husbands' should not lie every Night in the same Bed with their Wives ? answered, That he had done it for Three Reasons : First, Because a Man would be more brisk and lively, not having always his Wife by his Side : Secondly, Because the Love of a married couple would be revived and kept up by that Means: Thirdly, Because they would get Children of a stronger and more lively Constitution. Our Author adds, That a Moderate Use of the Pleasures of Love helps the Circulation of the Blood, and enlarges the Vessels. Which gives him Occasion to observe, that Women were not ignorarte of this last Effect in ancient Times. They used to

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meafure the Neck of a Bride with a Thread, before she went to the Nuptial Bed; and in the Morning they measured her Neck again with the same Thread; and if it happened to be too short, they, cried out with great Joy, that the Bride was no longer a Maid. Catullus alludes to that Custom in Thele Verses :

Non illam Nutrix orienti luce revisens
Hofterno poterit collum circumdare filo.

VII. The Author fhews how dangerous it is to invert the Order of Nature, by sitting up the greatest part of the Night, and rising very late. He thinks, that Seven or Eight Hour's sleep is sufficient for any Body.

Septem boras dormisse fat est juvenique senique. Dr. Ramazzini informs us, That he has often-enquiga ed into the Reason why Sleep is fo necessary, that a Man can hardly live without it; but he never could satisfy himself about that Enquiry. What he says upon that Subject deserves to be inserted here. “ If

any one should say, That Sleep is very necessary

to recruit the Spirits, that are daily loft by Warch“ing, and by the Animal Operations; I answer, “ That the insensible Diffipation which attends Sleep, “ does very much exceed what we lose when we “ are up, and exercise our Bodies, as the Learned “ San&torius observed in his Medicina Statica. If it “ be further said, That Digestion is better performed " when we are asleep, because the Heat and the Spi“ rits retire inwardly, and that the Nutritive Juice “ is then more quickly applied to the several Parts, “ infomuch that some Animals grow fat by Sleeping, " which does not happen when they are awake, be“ cause the Heat and the Spirits run to the exter“ nal Parts : I answer, That tho' all this be true, yer it does not appear from thence why Sleep


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