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Julius Cæfar spent vart Şums in mending and lengthening the Via Appia. Augustus was very careful to? ger the Ways of Italy repaired, and undertook for his Share to mend the Via Flaminia. That Prince took also a particular Care of the Highways in the Pro. vinces of the Empire. The best Èmperors were more careful than others to keep the Roads in Repair, and to encrease their Number.
Among the works of this Nature, that were performed by Vespasian, none are so remarkable as the Way, which he cut through a Mountain of the Apennine to shorten the Via Flaminia. Aurelius Victor mentions it. Those who have seen that Mountain in these latter Times, say it makes Part of the Apennine, near a Place called Furlo; and that because of its Steepness Vefpafiani caused it to be cut out in the nature of a Vault for the Space of Two hundred Geometrical Paces. The Inscription, that is still extant over one of the Entrances, may be seen among the Inscriptions collected by Gruterus. Domitian paved all the way from Sinuessa to Puteoli: That Way was a Branch of the Via Appia. The Emperor Trajast exceeded all his Predeceffors in his Care of the Highways : There is a remarkable Passage about it in Galen *. Dion Caffius fays, that Trajan made a paved Way over the Pomptine Paludes. Our Author thinks that Way, began at the Forum Appii, and ended at the Temple of the Goddess Feronia, three Miles from Terracina. Before this Way was made, Travellers used to imbark at the Forum Appii, where they left the Via Appia, being willing to take the shortest Way to Terracina, and landing at the Temple of Feronia, they came again to the Via Appia at Terracina t. I thall observe, thar Fabrettust mentions an Infcrip. tion importing, that Trajan caufed a Way to be
De Mech, medendi, Lib. IX. cap. 8. + See the Account which Horace gives of his journey to Brundisium. Sat. V. Lib. I.
# De Columna Trajana, cap. IX. pag. 295.
made over the Pomptine Paludes; which confirms. what we find about it in Dion Caffius.
The Author proceeds to give an Account of the Works of thar Nature performed by Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius, as it appears by several Infcriptions.
He mentions, in the next Place, fome other Inscriptions, whereby we may know what Highways were made or repaired by Septimius Severus, Cara. calla, Heliogabalus, and the following Emperors, till the Decay of the Western Empire.
The Highways were made or repaired, not only out of the publick Revenues, or by the Liberality of the Emperors, but also out of the Money arising from the Spoils of the Enemies, which was called Pecunia manubialis. Besides, several private. Persons undertook to make or to repair the publick Roads at their own Charges: Others gave conliderable Sums, or left great Legacies towards it. The Contributions for the Highways were looked upon as very glorious and honourable. The Clergy were not exempted from them under the Christian Emperors. The Senate and the People Atrove to express their Love and Gratitude for those, who took Care to make new Roads, or to repair che old ones ; which they did by erecting Statues and triumphal Arches to their Honour, and by stamping Medals to perpetuate their Memory.
Our Author takes Notice of some Roman High ways, to be seen ftill in the County of Hainault : They are commonly called les Chauffées de Brunehault (Brunebault's Causeways,) and paved with small blackish Stones. The Inhabitants of that Country tell many ridiculous Stories about them, and fancy they were made by the Devil. The Author ccnfures those Fabies in two Chapters.
He observes in the cwo next, That Auguffus caused two Ways to be made through the Alps, each of which reached as far as Lyons. Agrippa, his Son-inlaw, undertook to make four Ways, which began at that Ciry. The first went through the Cevennes into
HISTOIRE DES EMPEREURS, & des
Aquatin; the second to the lower Rhine; the third to Boulogne in Picardy; and the fourth to Marseilles.
The last Chapter of this first Book concerns the fabulous and the true History of the Highways in England, See the remaining part of this Extract in the Seventh Volume, Art. VII.
18 ARTICLE XXV. autres Princes qui ont regné durant les
six premiers siècles de l'Eglise, de leurs guerres contre les Juifs, des Ecrivains profanes, & des personnes les plus illustres de leur temps. Justifiée par les citations des Auteurs originaux. Avec des Nộtes pour éclaircir les principales difficultez de l'Histoire. Tome Cinquiéme, Premiere Partie, qui comprend VALENTINIAN . VALENS & GRATIEN. Seconde Partie, qui comprend THEODOSE 1. & ARCADE. 'Irofieme Partie, qui comprend HONORE. Par Mr. LENAIN DE TIL LEMONT. A Bruxelles, chez Eugene Henry Fricx, Imprimeur du Roy, rue de la Madelaine, M DCC X.
this three discover the
and other Princes, who reigned in the Six
Paul Vaillant in the Strand.
HIS History is so well known, and fo gene.
tally approved, that it were needless to make any Observation upon the Merit of the Author, and the Usefulness of his work. We have now Thirteen Volumes in , 12mo. (not to mention the Edition in 4+0.) of Mr. de Tillemont's History of the Emperors.
: actness, and the same Care of Quoting, the Original Authors, Perhaps is, might be said, that this History is interspersed with 199 many pious and devour Re flexions, not so proper to be inserted in a Work of this Națure. The Author- was a very, Learned and Religious Man; and it appears from this Performance, and from his Memoirs relating to Ecclefiaftical History, that he had entirely consecrated his Pen to the Publick. Good.
ART. 25. The Readers will not expect from me, that I should enlarge upon these Three Volumes ; and therefore I shall only take Noriee of some few Pallages con tained in the First.
Mr. de Tillemont observes, That the Emperor Valentinian I. loved and protected the Catholicks, without molesting the Arians, or any other Sect of Hereticks. In the very Beginning of his Reign, he made fome Laws, whereby the Heathens and Hereticks were at full Liberty to enjoy the Exercise of their Religion. No Body was persecured upon that Account. That Emperor never undertook to force his Subjects to follow the Religion, which he had embraced : He stood, as it were, neuter among so many different Religions ; for which he is very much commended by Ammianus Marcellinus." He suffered the Altar of Victory to remain at Rome. That Altar had been removed by Constantius's Order, and restored by Julian the Apoftate. Zofimus affirms, That the Law whereby Valentinian forbad Nocturnal Sacrifices, was not putin texecurion, because Pretextatus, Proconful of Greece, represented to him, that such a Law was intolerable to the Heathens, and destroyed their most au: gust Mysteries. There is a * Law of that Emperor's extant, whereby he declares, That he does not forbid the Discipline of the Aruspices, nor any other Exercise of Religion used among the Ancients, provided it be free from Magick! Nay, he granted some Privileges to the Pontiffs of the Provinces,' by a Law dated June 28. 371. But it appears from the Testimony of Libanius, that he 'forbadar' 'last the Sacrifices of Beasts, and only permitted to offer up Incense.
Our Author makes fome Reflexions upon the Conduct of Valentinian, in Relation to the Heathens and Hereticks of his Time. 'He declares, that he will not give his Judgment about it,' nor enquire, Whether or no it be expedient that a Prince should concern himself with Ecclefiaftical Affairs. It is certain on the one side, (says he) thar Princes ought to use their
* Made in the Year 371.